Topic Review
‘Chen Xi’ Rose
Flower color is one of the most prominent traits of rose flowers and determines their ornamental value. The ‘Chen Xi’ variety of rose has a very beautiful flower showing color changes during the blooming, which contributes a lot to its ornamental value. 
  • 449
  • 22 Oct 2021
Topic Review
‘Cow Signs’ in Assessing the Quality of Nutrition
Cow signs are behavioral, physiological, and management parameters that can be observed and measured. Cow signs can be used as a field approach to evaluate the composition of the ration, the quality of rumen fermentation, the quality of digestion, and the general herd health of cattle of interest. This research of cow signs associated with nutrition provides farm advisors, consultants, nutritionists, practitioners, and dairy farmers with an additional toolkit that can be used to improve the assessment of the quality of dairy cattle nutrition. ‘Cow signs’ are not to be used alone as a sole tool for assessment of the quality or nutrition of dairy cows. Some of the ‘cow signs’ are incorporated in precision technologies on many dairy farms and are extensively used in the assessment of dairy cow welfare, health, and nutrition. 
  • 287
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
(1,3;1,4)-β-D-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans.
  • 604
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
 m6A RNA Methylation Mechanism
Epitranscriptomic modifications can affect every aspect of RNA biology, including stability, transport, splicing, and translation, participate in global intracellular mRNA metabolism, and regulate gene expression and a variety of biological processes. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) as the most prevalent modification contributes to normal embryonic brain development and memory formation. 
  • 186
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
β-Galactosidase Immobilization for Galacto-Oligosaccharide Production
Much attention has recently been paid to β-Galactosidases (β-D-galactoside galactohidrolase; EC, commonly known as lactases, due to the lactose intolerance of the human population and the importance of dairy products in the human diet. This enzyme, produced by microorganisms, is being used in the dairy industry for hydrolyzing the lactose found in milk to produce lactose-free milk (LFM). Conventionally, β-galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of lactose to produce glucose and galactose in LFM; however, they can also catalyze transgalactosylation reactions that produce a wide range of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), which are functional prebiotic molecules that confer health benefits to human health. In this field, different works aims to identify novel microbial sources of β-galactosidase for removing lactose from milk with the relative GOS production. Lactase extracted from thermophilic microorganisms seems to be more suitable for the transgalactosylation process at relatively high temperatures, as it inhibits microbial contamination. Different immobilization methods, such as adsorption, covalent attachment, chemical aggregation, entrapment and micro-encapsulation, have been used to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with immobilized β-galactosidases. 
  • 255
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Ailanthus altissima as a Source of Natural Pesticides
The extensive use of pesticides may negatively affect human health. Additionally, it is one of the main reasons for the decline of pollinators and is thus a hazard for most crops and biodiversity as a whole. Good candidates for the replacement of pesticides with ones less toxic to humans and pollinators are natural products (bioactive compounds extracted from plants), even though it should be kept in mind that some of them can be toxic too. Ailanthus altissima (Mill.), swingle, known also as tree of heaven, (Simaroubaceae) is one of the most aggressive alien invasive plants. It demonstrates a high tolerance to various habitat conditions and a potent propagation ability. This plant has a prominent ability to suppress the seed development of local vegetation.
  • 175
  • 06 Sep 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Amanita muscaria: Ecology, Chemistry, Myths
Amanita muscaria is the most emblematic mushroom in the popular representation. It is an ectomycorrhizal fungus endemic to the cold ecosystems of the northern hemisphere. The basidiocarp contains isoxazoles compounds that have specific actions on the central nervous system, including hallucinations. For this reason, it is considered an important entheogenic mushroom in different cultures whose remnants are still visible in some modern-day European traditions. In Siberian civilizations, it has been consumed for religious and recreational purposes for millennia, as it was the only inebriant in this region.
  • 680
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Asexual Epichloë Fungi—Obligate Mutualists
Asexual Epichloë are obligate fungal mutualists that form symbiosis with many temperate grass species, providing several advantages to the host. These advantages include protection against vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores (i.e., grazing livestock and invertebrate pests, respectively), improved resistance to phytopathogens, increased adaptation to drought stress, nutrient deficiency, and heavy metal-containing soils. Selected Epichloë strains are utilised in agriculture mainly for their pest resistance traits, which are moderated via the production of Epichloë-derived secondary metabolites. For pastoral agriculture, the use of these endophyte infected grasses requires the balancing of protection against insect pests with reduced impacts on animal health and welfare.
  • 392
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Auricularia auricula’s Separation and Purification
Auricularia auricula polysaccharides (AAP) have been widely studied in the field of medicine and healthcare because of their unique structure and physiological activity. Many species of Auricularia auricula polysaccharides have been extracted, isolated, and purified by different methods, and their structures have been analyzed. Auricularia auricula polysaccharides have been proven to have beneficial effects on the human body, including slowing the aging process, controlling the intestinal system, and treating cardiovascular disorders.
  • 57
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Bacillus Nattokinase
Bacillus nattokinase is a potential low-cost thrombolytic drug without side-effects and has been introduced into the consumer market as a functional food or dietary supplement.
  • 121
  • 28 Jul 2022
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