Topic Review
-Omics Approaches in Studies of Polystyrene MNP Toxicity
The investigation of the toxicity mechanism of micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) is a topic of major concern for the scientific community. The use of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has suggested that the main pathways affected by polystyrene (PS) MNPs are related to energy metabolism, oxidative stress, immune response, and the nervous system, both in fishes and aquatic invertebrates. 
  • 72
  • 22 Mar 2024
Topic Review
‘Chen Xi’ Rose
Flower color is one of the most prominent traits of rose flowers and determines their ornamental value. The ‘Chen Xi’ variety of rose has a very beautiful flower showing color changes during the blooming, which contributes a lot to its ornamental value. 
  • 807
  • 22 Oct 2021
Topic Review
‘Cow Signs’ in Assessing the Quality of Nutrition
Cow signs are behavioral, physiological, and management parameters that can be observed and measured. Cow signs can be used as a field approach to evaluate the composition of the ration, the quality of rumen fermentation, the quality of digestion, and the general herd health of cattle of interest. This research of cow signs associated with nutrition provides farm advisors, consultants, nutritionists, practitioners, and dairy farmers with an additional toolkit that can be used to improve the assessment of the quality of dairy cattle nutrition. ‘Cow signs’ are not to be used alone as a sole tool for assessment of the quality or nutrition of dairy cows. Some of the ‘cow signs’ are incorporated in precision technologies on many dairy farms and are extensively used in the assessment of dairy cow welfare, health, and nutrition. 
  • 657
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
“Orange” Wine
“Orange” wine, a product derived from white grapes, encapsulates the intriguing allure of ancient winemaking methods that trace their roots back to Georgia. The method enables an elevated presence of phenolic compounds, which can have a favorable influence on the sensory characteristics of the wines or their behavior during oxidative processes.
  • 207
  • 11 Sep 2023
Topic Review
(1,3;1,4)-β-D-Glucans
(1,3;1,4)-β-D-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans.
  • 1.4K
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
(BEN)-Domain Containing Protein 3
(BEN)-Domain containing protein 3 (BEND3) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression in mammals. While there is limited research on the role of BEND3 as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene and its potential role in cancer therapy is still emerging, several studies suggest that it may be involved in both the processes. Its interaction and regulation with multiple other factors via p21 have already been reported to play a significant role in cancer development, which serves as an indication of its potential role in oncogenesis. Its interaction with chromatin modifiers such as NuRD and NoRC and its role in the recruitment of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) are some of the additional events indicative of its potential role in cancer development.
  • 237
  • 07 Aug 2023
Topic Review
[GADV]-amino Acids and GNC Codons Selected
The genetic code connecting gene with protein is one of the six members (gene, tRNA, genetic code, protein, metabolism, and cell structure) composing the fundamental life system, including the core life system (gene, tRNA, genetic code, and protein). Revealing the origin of the genetic code, one of four members of the core life system might lead to solving the mystery of the origin of life. Therefore, it is quite important to clarify how amino acids and codons were selected among messy organic compounds on primitive Earth and how the first genetic code was established.
  • 324
  • 15 Feb 2023
Topic Review
 m6A RNA Methylation Mechanism
Epitranscriptomic modifications can affect every aspect of RNA biology, including stability, transport, splicing, and translation, participate in global intracellular mRNA metabolism, and regulate gene expression and a variety of biological processes. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) as the most prevalent modification contributes to normal embryonic brain development and memory formation. 
  • 757
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
β-Galactosidase Immobilization for Galacto-Oligosaccharide Production
Much attention has recently been paid to β-Galactosidases (β-D-galactoside galactohidrolase; EC 3.2.1.23), commonly known as lactases, due to the lactose intolerance of the human population and the importance of dairy products in the human diet. This enzyme, produced by microorganisms, is being used in the dairy industry for hydrolyzing the lactose found in milk to produce lactose-free milk (LFM). Conventionally, β-galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of lactose to produce glucose and galactose in LFM; however, they can also catalyze transgalactosylation reactions that produce a wide range of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), which are functional prebiotic molecules that confer health benefits to human health. In this field, different works aims to identify novel microbial sources of β-galactosidase for removing lactose from milk with the relative GOS production. Lactase extracted from thermophilic microorganisms seems to be more suitable for the transgalactosylation process at relatively high temperatures, as it inhibits microbial contamination. Different immobilization methods, such as adsorption, covalent attachment, chemical aggregation, entrapment and micro-encapsulation, have been used to synthesize lactose-derived oligosaccharides with immobilized β-galactosidases. 
  • 676
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Natural Protective Products for Protecting Plants against Insects
Plant protection against insects relies on four main pillars: prevention and biological, chemical, and physical action. The use of chemical insecticides, a common practice, should be avoided unless all other methods have failed due to their potential negative impact on both humans and the environment.
  • 66
  • 18 Feb 2024
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