Topic Review
HPV Behavior in Oral and Vaginal Cavity
Human genital papilloma virus infection is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the world. It is estimated that more than 75% of sexually active women contract this infection in their lifetime. In 80% of young women, there is the clearance of the virus within 18–24 months.
  • 43
  • 18 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Disorders
Oral Potentially Malignant Disorder (OPMD) is a significant concern for clinicians due to the risk of malignant transformation. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a common type of cancer with a low survival rate, causing over 200,000 new cases globally each year. Despite advancements in diagnosis and treatment, the five-year survival rate for OSCC patients remains under 50%. Early diagnosis can greatly improve the chances of survival. Therefore, understanding the development and transformation of OSCC and developing new diagnostic methods is crucial. The field of oral medicine has been advanced by technological and molecular innovations, leading to the integration of new medical technologies into dental practice.
  • 59
  • 14 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Dysregulated Phosphate Metabolism, Periodontal Disease, and Cancer
Phosphate, an essential dietary micronutrient, is dysregulated in chronic kidney disease, and both cancer and periodontal disease are associated with chronic kidney disease. Reviewed evidence includes the association between phosphate toxicity and cancer development, and the association between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder includes conditions such as ectopic calcification and bone resorption, which may be indirectly related to periodontal disease. Dental calculus in periodontal disease contains calcium phosphate crystals that are deposited from excess calcium and phosphate in saliva. Alveolar bone resorption may be linked systemically to release of parathyroid hormone in response to hypocalcemia induced by hyperphosphatemia. 
  • 45
  • 13 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Use of Immune Regulation in HNSCC
Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new treatment modality for head and neck cancer, offering the potential for targeted and effective cancer management. Squamous cell carcinomas pose significant challenges due to their aggressive nature and limited treatment options. Conventional therapies such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy often have limited success rates and can have significant side effects. Immunotherapy harnesses the power of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells, and thus represents a novel approach with the potential to improve patient outcomes. In the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), important contributions are made by immunotherapies, including adaptive cell therapy (ACT) and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
  • 90
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Potential Immunohistochemical Biomarkers for Grading Oral Dysplasia
Oral cancer is becoming more and more frequent worldwide. Despite the widely available prevention, it is one of the most common cancers in the world, with 476,125 new cases and 225,900 deaths in 2020. Among the causes of carcinogenesis in the oral cavity, tobacco smoking or chewing, alcohol consumption, occupational exposure, risky sexual behaviour, genetic factors, and environmental pollution are widely mentioned. Smoking is the most prominent risk factor for oral cancer due to the carcinogenic chemicals in cigarette smoke, including nitrosamines, benzopyrenes, and aromatic amines. The risk of oral cancer is three times higher in smokers compared to non-smokers. In addition, the combination of cigarette smoking and frequent heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing cancer by several times.
  • 46
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Infraocclusion in the Primary and Permanent Dentition
The gradual movement of a tooth away from the occlusal plane is called infraocclusion or reinclusion. Reincluded teeth are most often deciduous molars, and permanent teeth are less frequently affected. Depending on the level of the infraocclusion, the severity of the disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The etiology of the phenomenon is not fully known. Tooth submerging can lead to serious complications, such as abnormal position of adjacent teeth, displacement of the bud of the permanent successor, shortening of the dental arch, or developmental disturbances of alveolar process. 
  • 43
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Surface Electromyography in Dentistry
Surface electromyography (sEMG) is a technique for measuring and analyzing the electrical signals of muscle activity using electrodes placed on the skin’s surface.
  • 47
  • 06 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Warthin’s Tumor
Warthin’s tumor is the second most frequent neoplasm next to pleomorphic adenoma in the salivary gland, mostly in the parotid gland. The epithelial cells constituting a tumor are characterized by the presence of mitochondria that undergo structural and functional changes, resulting in the development of oncocytes. 
  • 191
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Innovation in Biomechanical Orthognathic Surgery
Craniofacial surgery is proposed and performed for a variety of reasons, ranging from congenital or acquired malformations to emotional disorders and parafunctions of the masticatory, respiratory, auditory, and visual systems. Surgery of the mandible and its orthostatic repositioning is the most common of these corrections of craniofacial anomalies. Throughout the history of these procedures, various techniques have been proposed and perfected, but always with a high rate of minor and major complications. The recurrence rate of mandibular malposition is high, as is the temporary loss of facial sensitivity and motor skills. These outcomes are often related to the choice of surgical technique rather than the skill of the surgeon, which is considered to be one of the most important factors in the final outcome. Surgical techniques involving direct manipulation of the vascular-nervous bundles, such as bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, clearly present the possibility of major or minor complications.
  • 78
  • 20 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Gene-Activated Materials in Regenerative Dentistry and Periodontology
Treatment of a wide variety of defects in the oral and maxillofacial regions requires the use of innovative approaches to achieve best outcomes. One of the promising directions is the use of gene-activated materials (GAMs) that represent a combination of tissue engineering and gene therapy.
  • 108
  • 18 Feb 2024
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