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Systemic Impact of Periodontitis
Periodontitis is a microbially driven host-mediated disease that leads to loss of periodontal attachment and bone. It is associated with elevation of systemic inflammatory markers and with the presence of systemic co-morbidities. Furthermore, periodontal treatment leads to a 24–48 h-long acute local and systemic inflammatory response.
20 Mar 2023
Dental enamel is a specialized tissue that has adapted over millions of years of evolution to enhance the survival of a variety of species. In humans, enamel evolved to form the exterior protective layer for the crown of the exposed tooth crown. Its unique composition, structure, physical properties and attachment to the underlying dentin tissue allow it to be a resilient, although not self-repairing, tissue. The process of enamel formation, known as amelogenesis, involves epithelial-derived cells called ameloblasts that secrete a unique extracellular matrix that influences the structure of the mineralizing enamel crystallites.
17 Mar 2023
Bisphosphonates and Their Influence on the Implant Failure
The use of bisphosphonate (BP) may impair the osseointegration. It is a class of drugs that are frequently selected when there is an alteration in the bone metabolism, which are utilized to prevent bone loss. It can be administered orally (e.g., daily, weekly, or monthly) for treatment of osteoporosis and Paget’s disease, or intravenously (every 3 months or annually) to treat malignant skeletal oncological diseases.
17 Mar 2023
Periodontitis in Systemic Sclerosis
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, autoimmune, multisystemic disease characterized by aberrant extracellular matrix protein deposition and extreme progressive microvasculopathy. These processes lead to damage within the skin, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract, but also to facial changes with physiognomic and functional alterations, and dental and periodontal lesions. Orofacial manifestations are common in SSc but are frequently overshadowed by systemic complications. In clinical practice, oral manifestations of SSc are suboptimally addressed, while their management is not included in the general treatment recommendations. Periodontitis is associated with autoimmune-mediated systemic diseases, including systemic sclerosis. In periodontitis, the microbial subgingival biofilm induces host-mediated inflammation with subsequent tissue damage, periodontal attachment, and bone loss. When these diseases coexist, patients experience additive damage, increasing malnutrition, and morbidity.
09 Mar 2023
Essential Oils and the Oral Microbiome
The extensive use of antibiotics has resulted in the development of drug-resistant bacteria, leading to a decline in the efficacy of traditional antibiotic treatments. Essential oils (EOs) are phytopharmaceuticals, or plant-derived compounds, that possess beneficial properties such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral, bacteriostatic, and bactericidal effects.
21 Feb 2023
Denture Stomatitis Pathogenesis and Presentation
Chronic atrophic candidiasis, commonly referred to as denture stomatitis (DS), is the most prevalent multifactorial, chronic inflammatory oral condition amongst denture wearers. It affects edentulous people who wear complete or partial dentures, as well as those who use intraoral removable orthodontic appliances and obturators. DS most commonly involves the palate and is more likely to be observed in patients with acrylic dentures than prostheses fabricated using other materials.
20 Feb 2023
Amelioration Strategies for Silver Diamine Fluoride
Topical cariostatic agents have become a reasonable alternative for managing dental caries in young children. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a practical topical approach to arrest caries and avoid extensive and risky dental treatment. The rapid oxidation of ionic silver darkens demineralised tooth structure permanently. In this regard, nano-metallic antimicrobials could augment or substitute for silver, and thereby enhance SDF aesthetic performance.
20 Feb 2023
Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Dental Education
Most dental educators have limited knowledge and skills to assess AI applications, as they were not trained to do so. Also, AI technology has evolved exponentially. Factual reliability and opportunities with OpenAI Inc.’s ChatGPT are considered critical inflection points in the era of generative AI. Updating curricula at dental institutions is inevitable as advanced deep-learning approaches take over the clinical areas of dentistry and reshape diagnostics, treatment planning, management, and telemedicine screening. With advances in AI language models, communication with patients will change, and the foundations of dental education, including essay, thesis, or scientific paper writing, will need to adapt. However, there is a growing concern about its ethical and legal implications, and further consensus is needed for the safe and responsible implementation of AI in dental education.
20 Feb 2023
Antisclerostin Effect on Osseointegration and Bone
Sclerostin is a glycoprotein encoded in humans by the SOST gene. It is located on chromosome 17q12-q21, with a C-terminal cysteine knot-like (CTCK) domain. It has a similar sequence also to DAN (Differential screening-selected gene Aberrative in Neuroblastoma), an antagonist’s family of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Sclerostin is primarily produced and secreted by osteocytes. Moreover, it is a negative key regulator of osteoblastic functions. It inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway after binding with LRP5 and 6 (Wnt-coreceptor). This canonical Wnt signaling (Wnt/β-catenin pathway) is essential in bone healing. It promotes pre-osteoblast proliferation and osteo-induction, enhances survival of all cells of the osteoblast lineage, inhibits differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrocytes and adipocytes and controls osteoclast maturation by regulating RANKL levels in osteoblast receptors.
15 Feb 2023
Regulators of Fibrinolysis in Oral Cavity
The oral cavity is a unique environment that consists of teeth surrounded by periodontal tissues, oral mucosae with minor salivary glands, and terminal parts of major salivary glands that open into the oral cavity. It is a first-line defense against most viral and bacterial pathogens. Fibrinolytic factors of the plasminogen (Plg)/plasmin (Pm) system, their soluble and membrane receptors, and fragments, such as suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) modulate physiological and pathological conditions, especially inflammation. Fibrinolysis, the removal of fibrin, is the primary function of fibrinolytic factors. Under physiological conditions, fibrinolytic factors are present in the oral cavity and secreted mostly with saliva. Under the inflammation plasminogen/plasmin system performs fibrinolytic and non-fibrinolytic functions: cytokines or proteases (MMPs) are activated, receptors such as suPAR are shed from the surface promoting cell migration, and modulation of the inflammatory response. Viruses, like SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), exploit the fibrinolytic system to promote host cell infection.
10 Feb 2023
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