Topic Review
WNT Signalling in Dental Pathologies
Great efforts have been made over the past decades to discover new therapeutic targets for a big variety of human pathologies. Most of the studies dealing with severe pathological conditions such as cancers and tissue malformations are focused on the role of either widely recognized master controlling genes such as ras and myc or pivotal components of key signalling pathways, among which Wnt and Notch. However, these genes and molecules are fundamental for paired embryogenesis as well as for tissue and organ homeostasis and regeneration, where they regulate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. The precise timing and localization of their activation are important to ensure the appropriate cellular functions in physiological conditions. Thus, their indiscriminate targeting is not desirable, due to both the high risk of severe side effects and the certainty of broad phenotypic consequences. On the contrary, optimal therapeutic targets should be selected based on their tissue, time and pathology specific roles. Here, we suggest a paradigmatic example of such target molecules that could be represented by the Wnt/b-catenin signalling components Bcl9 and Bcl9l. 
  • 526
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Vitamin D in Oral Diseases Development
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a significant role in the whole body, including the maxillofacial region. The discovery of its receptors in many cells and organs made it possible to reveal the participation of vitamin D not only in the regulation of calcium phosphate metabolism, but also in immune processes, in providing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, slowing down cell proliferation and stimulating differentiation. In this literature review, we demonstrate the association between low vitamin D levels and the development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, the course and response to treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the severity of periodontal diseases, and the processes of osseointegration and bone remodeling during dental implantation and guided tissue regeneration. 
  • 93
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Treatment in Cleft Palate Patients
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are one of the most common congenital anomalies with a global prevalence of 1:700. Velopharyngeal insufficiency may occur as a result of an anatomical or structural defect and may be present in patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment options presented in the literature are varied, covering invasive and non-invasive methods.
  • 31
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Various Attachments for Implant Overdentures
This study presents an overview of the biomechanical and biomolecular aspects of various attachments for implant overdenture. We focused on the following topics: attachment systems, retention of various attachments, stress distribution with different attachments, the design and fabrication of attachments, digital techniques in overdenture attachments, and the effects of attachments in peri-implant health. We found that plastic resin is commonly used for ball and bar attachments, whereas nylon resin is commonly used in locator attachments. The locator system offers a valuable attachment option for implant-retained overdenture. Attachment retention reduces while lateral force increases with implant inclination in overdenture. The higher the retention of an overdenture attachment, the higher the transferred stresses. Additionally, clip loading produces more stress in implants and precision elements than bar-retained dentures. As such, we conclude that the ball and locator systems the best overdenture systems due to their superior tissue response, survival rate, and patient satisfaction.
  • 680
  • 03 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Ultrasound Imaging in Dentistry
Ultrasound Imaging, in addition to providing useful indications for diagnosis, can also be used with greater certainty as regards patient follow-up, being repeated at relatively short distances, without causing biological damage. Differently than X-rays, sound waves can be represented as a mechanical longitudinal wave, which can manifest as particle displacement or pressure alterations. 
  • 160
  • 16 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Topical Agents for Nonrestorative Management of Dental Erosion
A nonrestorative approach to the management of dental erosion is the foremost option: controlling dental erosion. Nonrestorative approaches to dental erosion commonly include dietary analysis and counselling, oral health education and topical use of anti-erosive agents. Topical anti-erosive agents can be broadly categorised as fluorides, calcium phosphate-based agents, organic compounds and other anti-erosive agents. In the presence of saliva, fluorides promote the formation of fluorapatite on teeth through remineralisation.
  • 41
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Toothpaste and Surface Roughness of Resin-Contained Dental Materials
Ceramic is the most used material for esthetic restorations in fixed prosthodontics. Surface roughness, translucency, resistance to wear, and mechanical properties are the main investigated characteristics of the ceramic surface. The surface roughness is one of the factors that influenced the clinical survival of prosthetic rehabilitation, optical properties, wear of the antagonist teeth, and initiation of cracks. Different factors influenced the surface roughness of the prosthetic materials, but the effect of brushing or polishing with toothpaste or prophylactic polishing pastes could be considered as one of the factors.
  • 128
  • 15 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Tongue and Systemic Connections Microbiota
The tongue is able to quickly reflect the state of health or disease of the human body. Tongue inspection is an important diagnostic approach. It is a unique method that allows to explore the pathogenesis of diseases based on the guiding principles of the holistic concept that involves the observation of changes in the lining of the tongue in order to understand the physiological functions and pathological changes of the body. It is a potential method of screening and early detection of cancer.
  • 276
  • 07 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Titanium Wear of Dental Implants
Titanium is considered high-ly biocompatible with low corrosion and toxicity, but recent studies indicate that this understand-ing may be misleading as the properties of the material change drastically when titanium nano-particles (NPs) are shed from implant surfaces. These NPs are immunogenic and are associated with a macrophage-mediated inflammatory response by the host.
  • 320
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Titanium Alloys in Maxillofacial Osteosynthesis
Titanium alloys are known for their biological, mechanical and chemical properties, which have successfully expanded their use in the maxillofacial field. The internal fixation using titanium miniplates and screws offers a new perspective for the treatment of trauma, in orthognathic surgery and maxillofacial oncology. Although, titanium is highly recommended for its excellent biocompatibility, recent research has focused on identifying the potential local and general implications of the interactions between the human tissue and the metallic particles. This present review aims to outline the existing tissue changes, cellular alterations and future perspectives regarding the use of titanium-based alloys as osteosynthesis materials, taking into consideration the existing present debate whether the routinely removal of these materials should be an indication.
  • 356
  • 28 Oct 2020
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