Topic Review
WNT Signalling in Dental Pathologies
Great efforts have been made over the past decades to discover new therapeutic targets for a big variety of human pathologies. Most of the studies dealing with severe pathological conditions such as cancers and tissue malformations are focused on the role of either widely recognized master controlling genes such as ras and myc or pivotal components of key signalling pathways, among which Wnt and Notch. However, these genes and molecules are fundamental for paired embryogenesis as well as for tissue and organ homeostasis and regeneration, where they regulate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. The precise timing and localization of their activation are important to ensure the appropriate cellular functions in physiological conditions. Thus, their indiscriminate targeting is not desirable, due to both the high risk of severe side effects and the certainty of broad phenotypic consequences. On the contrary, optimal therapeutic targets should be selected based on their tissue, time and pathology specific roles. Here, we suggest a paradigmatic example of such target molecules that could be represented by the Wnt/b-catenin signalling components Bcl9 and Bcl9l. 
  • 998
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Warthin’s Tumor
Warthin’s tumor is the second most frequent neoplasm next to pleomorphic adenoma in the salivary gland, mostly in the parotid gland. The epithelial cells constituting a tumor are characterized by the presence of mitochondria that undergo structural and functional changes, resulting in the development of oncocytes. 
  • 208
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Vitamin D in Oral Diseases Development
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a significant role in the whole body, including the maxillofacial region. The discovery of its receptors in many cells and organs made it possible to reveal the participation of vitamin D not only in the regulation of calcium phosphate metabolism, but also in immune processes, in providing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, slowing down cell proliferation and stimulating differentiation. In this literature review, we demonstrate the association between low vitamin D levels and the development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, the course and response to treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the severity of periodontal diseases, and the processes of osseointegration and bone remodeling during dental implantation and guided tissue regeneration. 
  • 429
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Treatment in Cleft Palate Patients
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are one of the most common congenital anomalies with a global prevalence of 1:700. Velopharyngeal insufficiency may occur as a result of an anatomical or structural defect and may be present in patients with cleft lip and palate. The treatment options presented in the literature are varied, covering invasive and non-invasive methods.
  • 337
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Various Attachments for Implant Overdentures
This study presents an overview of the biomechanical and biomolecular aspects of various attachments for implant overdenture. We focused on the following topics: attachment systems, retention of various attachments, stress distribution with different attachments, the design and fabrication of attachments, digital techniques in overdenture attachments, and the effects of attachments in peri-implant health. We found that plastic resin is commonly used for ball and bar attachments, whereas nylon resin is commonly used in locator attachments. The locator system offers a valuable attachment option for implant-retained overdenture. Attachment retention reduces while lateral force increases with implant inclination in overdenture. The higher the retention of an overdenture attachment, the higher the transferred stresses. Additionally, clip loading produces more stress in implants and precision elements than bar-retained dentures. As such, we conclude that the ball and locator systems the best overdenture systems due to their superior tissue response, survival rate, and patient satisfaction.
  • 5.2K
  • 03 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Use of Immune Regulation in HNSCC
Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new treatment modality for head and neck cancer, offering the potential for targeted and effective cancer management. Squamous cell carcinomas pose significant challenges due to their aggressive nature and limited treatment options. Conventional therapies such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy often have limited success rates and can have significant side effects. Immunotherapy harnesses the power of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells, and thus represents a novel approach with the potential to improve patient outcomes. In the management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), important contributions are made by immunotherapies, including adaptive cell therapy (ACT) and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
  • 101
  • 12 Mar 2024
Topic Review
Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia
Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) is a pathology most commonly present in one side of the mandible, characterized by an abnormal condylar process of progressive overgrowth in time, causing visible changes in the anatomy, shape, and size of condylar head and neck elongation, along with visible facial asymmetry features.
  • 242
  • 28 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Ultrasound Imaging in Dentistry
Ultrasound Imaging, in addition to providing useful indications for diagnosis, can also be used with greater certainty as regards patient follow-up, being repeated at relatively short distances, without causing biological damage. Differently than X-rays, sound waves can be represented as a mechanical longitudinal wave, which can manifest as particle displacement or pressure alterations. 
  • 835
  • 16 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Toxicity of Dentifrices
The regular use of adequate toothpaste with safe active ingredients possessing anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and regenerative properties is one of the most effective strategies for oral healthcare. In addition to water, a typical toothpaste consists of a variety of components, among which three are of predominant importance, i.e., abrasive substances, fluoride, and detergents. These ingredients provide healthy teeth, but their environmental impact on living organisms are often not well-known.
  • 117
  • 11 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Topical Agents for Nonrestorative Management of Dental Erosion
A nonrestorative approach to the management of dental erosion is the foremost option: controlling dental erosion. Nonrestorative approaches to dental erosion commonly include dietary analysis and counselling, oral health education and topical use of anti-erosive agents. Topical anti-erosive agents can be broadly categorised as fluorides, calcium phosphate-based agents, organic compounds and other anti-erosive agents. In the presence of saliva, fluorides promote the formation of fluorapatite on teeth through remineralisation.
  • 319
  • 11 Aug 2022
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