Topic Review
WNT Signalling in Dental Pathologies
Great efforts have been made over the past decades to discover new therapeutic targets for a big variety of human pathologies. Most of the studies dealing with severe pathological conditions such as cancers and tissue malformations are focused on the role of either widely recognized master controlling genes such as ras and myc or pivotal components of key signalling pathways, among which Wnt and Notch. However, these genes and molecules are fundamental for paired embryogenesis as well as for tissue and organ homeostasis and regeneration, where they regulate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. The precise timing and localization of their activation are important to ensure the appropriate cellular functions in physiological conditions. Thus, their indiscriminate targeting is not desirable, due to both the high risk of severe side effects and the certainty of broad phenotypic consequences. On the contrary, optimal therapeutic targets should be selected based on their tissue, time and pathology specific roles. Here, we suggest a paradigmatic example of such target molecules that could be represented by the Wnt/b-catenin signalling components Bcl9 and Bcl9l. 
  • 619
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Gingival Crevicular Fluid
The Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) consists of various host and bacterial-derived products as well as biomarkers which in turn can be evaluated for the diagnosis, prognosis as well as management of the periodontal disease. 
  • 605
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Dental Plaque
Dental plaque is a community of microorganisms found on the surface of teeth or other hard surfaces like dentures and embedded in a matrix of polymers of both host and bacterial origin.
  • 591
  • 23 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing Processes
Additive manufacturing (AM, 3D printing) is used in many fields and different industries. In the medical and dental field, every patient is unique and, therefore, AM has significant potential in personalized and customized solutions. This text explores what additive manufacturing processes and materials are utilized in medical and dental applications, especially focusing on processes that are less commonly used. The processes are categorized in ISO/ASTM process classes: powder bed fusion, material extrusion, VAT photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, sheet lamination and directed energy deposition combined with classification of medical applications of AM. Based on the findings, it seems that directed energy deposition is utilized rarely only in implants and sheet lamination rarely for medical models or phantoms. Powder bed fusion, material extrusion and VAT photopolymerization are utilized in all categories. Material jetting is not used for implants and biomanufacturing, and binder jetting is not utilized for tools, instruments and parts for medical devices. The most common materials are thermoplastics, photopolymers and metals such as titanium alloys. If standard terminology of AM would be followed, this would allow a more systematic review of the utilization of different AM processes.
  • 541
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Dentistry
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) have been found to be beneficial tools for clinical practice and for enhancing the learning experiences of students during their pre-clinical education and training sessions. Clinicians can use VR technology to show their patients the expected outcomes before the undergo dental procedures. Additionally, AR and VR can be implemented to overcome dental phobia, which is commonly experienced by pediatric patients. Future studies should focus on forming technological standards with high-quality data and developing scientifically-proven AR/VR gadgets for dental practice. 
  • 541
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Electrospinning in GBR
Nanofibre-based membranes or scaffolds exhibit high surface-to-volume ratio, which allows an improved cell adhesion, representing an attractive subgroup of biomaterials due to their unique properties. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical procedure in which bone regeneration, due to bone atrophy following tooth loss, is “guided” by an occlusive barrier. New approaches such as multifunctional multilayering and coupling with bone promoting factors or antimicrobial agents, makes this technology very attractive also for bone regeneration procedures. The technical limitations of traditional electrospinning strategies for bone-tissue engineering applications might be critical for the preparation of three-dimensional scaffolds.  
  • 535
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
3D Printing for Periodontal Regeneration
The three-dimensional printing of scaffolds is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques of periodontal regeneration. This technique uses computer assisted design and manufacturing after CT scan. After 3D modelling, individualized scaffolds are printed by extrusion, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, or powder bed inkjet printing. These scaffolds can be made of one or several materials such as natural polymers, synthetic polymers, or bioceramics.
  • 503
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Disease
Periodontal disease dominates as the most common inflammatory disease in the oral cavity. There is growing evidence on the involvement of oxidative stress, which is simply described as the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former, in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Redox mechanistic insights that underlie immuno-inflammatory pathway may thus advance our understanding about periodontal pathogenesis, serving as the background for the development of efficient strategies for periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
  • 501
  • 15 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Health and Oral Health Coaching
Health-related behavior based on diet is an important determinant of oral health in independent elderly. Aging impairs senses, mastication, oral status, and function, causing nutritional needs and diet insufficiencies that contribute to a vicious circle of impairment. But the present needs of independent older adults suggest that health research and oral health care should shift from disease management and therapy to integral customized and personal treatment plans, including lifestyle, psychological, nutritional, and oral health coaching approaches. In this paper health coaching approaches in medical and dental settings are valued as to their effectiveness for older adults. Furthermore, coaching approaches for seniors are discussed and coaching models for better senior patient-dentist cooperation on the diet issue are suggested. Diet and oral health coaching is proven to be a modern senior patient-centered approach that needs to be incorporated at all relevant settings. It should aim to empower older adults in co-management of their oral diseases or bad diet habits affecting their oral health. This can be carried out through an incorporated educational plan for dentists either at the postgraduate or professional level since advantages seem to enhance the quality of life of the independent elderly.
  • 492
  • 31 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Nanomaterials for Optical Coherence Tomography in Nanodentistry
There is already a societal awareness of the growing impact of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with nanomaterials (with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) now incorporated in items as diverse as mobile phones, clothes or dentifrices. In the healthcare area, nanoparticles of biocompatible materials have already been used for cancer treatment or bioimaging enhancement. Nanotechnology in dentistry, or nanodentistry, has already found some developments in dental nanomaterials for caries management, restorative dentistry and orthodontic adhesives. 
  • 479
  • 01 Mar 2022
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