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5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer Treatment
5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (5-ALA-PDT) is a therapeutic option for a variety of cutaneous and internal malignancies. PDT uses a photosensitizer that, activated by light in the presence of molecule oxygen, forms ROS, which are responsible for the apoptotic activity of the malignant tissues. 5-ALA is usually used as an endogenous pro-photosensitizer because it is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which enters into the process of heme synthesis and contextually becomes a photosensitizer, radiating a red fluorescent light. PDT has the benefit of being administered before or after chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery, without impairing the efficacy of these treatment techniques. Furthermore, sensitivity to PDT is unaffected by the negative effects of chemotherapy or radiation.
30 May 2023
Periodontitis in Pregnant Women
Periodontitis develops in 11% of pregnant women, and it is independently linked to severe complications during pregnancy such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational diabetes. Periodontal disease appears to be associated with adverse events in pregnancy due to the transport of biofilm bacteria into the bloodstream and into placental tissue; what would cause adverse events is the body’s immune response to infection.
29 May 2023
Full-Digital Customized Meshes in Guided Bone Regeneration
Meshes, especially titanium ones, are being widely applied in oral surgery. In guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures, their use is often paired with membranes, being resorbable or non-resorbable. However, they present some limitations, such as difficulty in the treatment of severe bone defects, alongside frequent mesh exposure. Customized meshes, produced by a full-digital process, have been recently introduced in GBR procedures. The main findings in recent years of clinical trials regarding patient-specific mesh produced by CAD/CAM and 3D printing workflow, made in titanium or even PEEK, applied to GBR surgeries, are described. The purpose is to analyze their clinical management, advantages, and complications.
26 May 2023
CBCT for Sinus Floor Elevation Procedures
Sinus floor elevation (SFE) is a standard surgical technique used to compensate for alveolar bone resorption in the posterior maxilla. Such a surgical procedure requires radiographic imaging pre- and postoperatively for diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome assessment. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become a well-established imaging modality in the dentomaxillofacial region. The research is aimed to provide clinicians with an overview of the role of three-dimensional (3D) CBCT imaging for diagnostics, treatment planning, and postoperative monitoring of SFE procedures.
26 May 2023
3D-Printed Splints Therapy for Temporomandibular Disorders
In the field of dentistry, digital technology is developing very quickly. There is an increasing demand for the most efficient use of expensive digital equipment. More and more dental practices are using digital scanners and digital facebows. It is an excellent option to improve 3D splint therapy in temporomandibular disorders. Dental offices and dental laboratories will rapidly adopt 3D-printed orthodontic appliances. The benefits are its accuracy and a light workload. It is precise, long-lasting, less expensive and quicker than the conventional method.
25 May 2023
Dental implant-supported prostheses are a well-established rehabilitation treatment for partially or completely edentulous patients that restore function and esthetics while having long-term survival rates. The tissues surrounding osseointegrated dental implants are referred to as peri-implant tissues, consisting of soft and hard tissue parts. The soft tissue part forms following the placement of implant/abutment during the wound healing and is known as “peri-implant mucosa,” while the hard tissue part makes contact with the implant surface to ensure implant stability.
25 May 2023
Role of Oral Microbiome on Oral Cancer
Oral cancer (OC) is the most common neoplasm in the head and neck region. OCs are defined as cancers of the tongue, the floor of the oral cavity, the lining of the cheeks, the roof of the oral cavity, the gums, and the lips but do not include laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers. The majority of OCs comprise oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The oral microbiome hosts more than 750 common oral species. A healthy microbiome usually consists of Streptococci, Staphylococci, Neisseria species, and about 50 other aerobes. The consensus is that a normal mouth microbiome consists mainly of aerobes, while the percentage of anaerobes increases with OC (and other pathological oral conditions). The connection that exists between microbes and carcinoma is complex and influenced by a number of factors, such as the vulnerability and genetic makeup of the host, as well as environmental conditions, including the host’s dietary regime, oral hygiene, and tobacco and alcohol use.
19 May 2023
Dental Fiber-Post Systems
The field of dental medicine is constantly evolving and advancing toward minimally invasive techniques. Several studies have demonstrated that bonding to the tooth structure, particularly enamel, yields the most predictable results. In some instances, however, significant tooth loss, pulpal necrosis, or irreversible pulpitis may limit the options available to the restorative dentist. In these cases, placement of a post and core followed by a crown is the preferred treatment option, provided all requirements are met.
19 May 2023
Clinical Applications of the Microbiome in Oral Mucositis
Oral mucositis (OM) is a common and impactful toxicity of standard cancer therapy, affecting up to 80% of patients. Its aetiology centres on the initial destruction of epithelial cells and the increase in inflammatory signals. These changes in the oral mucosa create a hostile environment for resident microbes, with oral infections co-occurring with OM, especially at sites of ulceration. However, increasing evidence suggests that oral microbiome changes occur beyond opportunistic infection, with a growing appreciation for the potential role of the microbiome in OM development and severity.
19 May 2023
Immune Dysfunction in Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
The pathogenesis of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is multifactorial and there is a substantial consensus on the role of antiresorptive drugs (ARDs), including bisphosphonates (BPs) and denosumab (Dmab), as one of the main determinants. The time exposure, cumulative dose and administration intensity of these drugs are critical parameters to be considered in the treatment of patients, as cancer patients show the highest incidence of MRONJ. BPs and Dmab have distinct mechanisms of action on bone, but they also exert different effects on immune subsets which interact with bone cells, thus contributing to the onset of MRONJ.
17 May 2023
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
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Luis V. Lopez-Llorca
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