Topic Review
Soil and Irrigation Water Salinity in Ethiopia
The salt problem in Ethiopia has been further exacerbated by a number of factors, including poor water quality, ineffective on-farm water management techniques, and a lack of appropriate and technically sound drainage infrastructure at irrigation sites.  Soil and irrigation water salinity have a substantial link with crops and agricultural communities in Ethiopia. Salinity has a significant impact on soil and water fertility, resulting in poorer agricultural production, food insecurity, and poverty. Salinity has a significant impact on crops in the country, from the germination stages to the harvesting stages during the growing season. If the current state of soil and water management continues, the severity of both soil and irrigation water salinity will reach an irreversible level that significantly impedes the country’s agricultural production capacity. As a result, cultured irrigation water treatment, crop selection based on salinity and sodicity levels, irrigation water quality, leaching, and fertilizer use in combination with organic manures are scientifically proven actions to address the salinity problem. 
  • 24
  • 18 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Microbial Fuel Cells in Treatment  from Wastewater
The treatment of wastewater is an expensive and energy-extensive practice that not only ensures the power generation requirements to sustain the current energy demands of an increasing human population but also aids in the subsequent removal of enormous quantities of wastewater that need to be treated within the environment. Thus, renewable energy source-based wastewater treatment is one of the recently developing techniques to overcome power generation and environmental contamination issues. In wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has demonstrated a promising potential to evolve as a sustainable approach, with the simultaneous recovery of energy and nutrients to produce bioelectricity that harnesses the ability of electrogenic microbes to oxidize organic contaminants present in wastewater. 
  • 83
  • 18 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Controlled Environment Agriculture and Sustainability
Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) is one of the emerging agri-food technologies that has increasingly gained attention from researchers, practitioners, and consumers for its potential to make growing practices more sustainable. The term controlled environment agriculture was first introduced in the 1960s, referring to an intensive approach for controlling plant growth through the broad implementation of advanced techniques and innovations in technology. In this sense, CEA is not a completely new concept, as agriculture has witnessed a technological and functional evolution over the last century, from simple row covers in open fields to highly sophisticated indoor facilities where all growing elements are under accurate control. By controlling the growth environments and manipulating plant responses to their environments, CEA claims to offer advantages to increase production efficiency, optimise plant yield, and improve product quality.
  • 25
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Combined Electrocoagulation and Adsorption Processes
The electrocoagulation (EC) process is a possible alternative to conventional wastewater treatment methods. Characteristics of the process, such as its flexibility, easy operation, no need for additional chemicals, and its ability to deal with different contaminants, have been increasing the interest in its implementation. The EC process found application in the treatment of different contaminated waters, and several studies have shown the potential of this technology. Adsorption (AD) is another attractive way of treating wastewaters due to the potential of using low-cost and environmentally friendly adsorbents. Due to their high surface area and well-developed pore structure, activated carbons are the most used adsorbents in wastewater treatment systems. The high price of activated carbon limits its application. The combination of the EC and AD processes can be used to amplify the advantages that each process presents in treating wastewaters. As a first step, the EC process reduces the pollutant loading and the suspended solids concentration, which can benefit the AD process by delaying the adsorbent saturation and preventing clogging. Additionally, each adsorption/regeneration cycle could result in the adsorbent losing some of its capacity; as a result, delaying adsorbent saturation helps to increase its useful life. 
  • 23
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Key Technologies of Smart Energy System
The Energy Internet is the representative achievement and product of the smart energy system. It is the product of the deep integration of energy and the Internet. It is a new energy system with the characteristics of open interconnection of multi-energy, free energy transmission, open peer-to-peer access and so on, based on electrical engineering technology represented by power electronics technology and combined with relatively mature information technology and intelligent management technology at the present stage. Therefore, the Energy Internet is another important topic after smart grids in the field of energy.
  • 16
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Renewable Power and Heat for the Decarbonisation
Renewable energy (RE) solutions have been classified into technologies based on the use of renewable electricity and those used to produce heat for multiple industrial processes. Electrification will be key thanks to the gradual decrease in renewable power prices and the conversion of natural-gas-dependent processes. Industrial processes that are not eligible for electrification will still need a form of renewable heat. Among them, the following have been identified: concentrating solar power, heat pumps, and geothermal energy. These can supply a broad range of needed temperatures. Biomass will be a key element not only in the decarbonisation of conventional combustion systems but also as a biofuel feedstock. Biomethane and green hydrogen are considered essential. Biomethane can allow a straightforward transition from fossil-based natural gas to renewable gas. Green hydrogen production technologies will be required to increase their maturity and availability in Europe (EU). Energy Intensive Industries (EIIs)’ decarbonisation will occur through the progressive use of an energy mix that allows EU industrial sectors to remain competitive on a global scale. Each industrial sector will require specific renewable energy solutions, especially the top greenhouse gas-emitting industries. 
  • 33
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Possibilities for Blockchain-Enabled Guarantees of Origin
Guarantees of Origin (GOs) are widely used as insurances for the renewability of electricity supplies and proofs of compliance to renewable standards; however, they suffer from structural problems. Their transactional history cannot distinguish between those traded among market actors and the ones that come directly from power plants, giving rise to transparency issues. Certificate trading dissuades producers from investing in an increase in renewable capacity resulting in lack of additionality while complex frameworks and administrative structures emerge to keep track of the vast network of GOs. These issues can be resolved through the introduction of blockchain networks which can provide transparency and help incentivise renewable investment while increasing automation and process simplification.
  • 23
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Oil Physical Transport and Weathering Processes
Several oil spill simulation models exist in the literature, which are used worldwide to simulate the evolution of an oil slick created from marine traffic, petroleum production, or other sources. The behavior of an oil spill in the marine environment depends on a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes that are largely determined by both the properties of leaked oil and the environmental, hydro-meteorological conditions (wave, winds, currents, solar radiation, etc.), and discharge characteristics (instantaneous/continuous, surface/deep-water). The fate and behavior of an oil spill can be influenced by the physico-chemical oil weathering processes: oil spreading, evaporation, emulsification, dissolution, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation, and the physical transport processes, like transport and turbulent mixing, dispersion, and resurfacing.
  • 48
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Agricultural Drainage
Practicing agricultural drainage strategies is necessary to manage excess water in poorly drained irrigated farmlands to protect them from induced waterlogging and salinity problems. 
  • 60
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Methods to Remediate Arsenic-Contaminated Soils
Arsenic is a metalloid widely distributed in the environment and of global concern for human health. In a promising breakthrough for sustainable arsenic soil remediation, a fern, Pteris vittata L., was discovered to take up arsenic from the soil and accumulate it in its fronds at up to ~100 times soil concentrations. Successively harvesting the fronds removes, or phytoextracts, arsenic from the soil with potential environmental and economic benefits including low site disturbance and low cost. 
  • 36
  • 16 Jan 2023
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