- Agriculture, Dairy & Animal Science (311)
- Agronomy (30)
- Anatomy & Morphology (28)
- Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (900)
- Biodiversity Conservation (7)
- Biology (250)
- Biophysics (50)
- Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology (174)
- Cell & Tissue Engineering (33)
- Cell Biology (420)
- Developmental Biology (7)
- Ecology (30)
- Endocrinology & Metabolism (108)
- Entomology (14)
- Evolutionary Biology (2)
- Fisheries (0)
- Food Science & Technology (176)
- Forestry (27)
- Genetics & Heredity (2336)
- Horticulture (17)
- Immunology (213)
- Limnology (0)
- Marine & Freshwater Biology (3)
- Microbiology (330)
- Mycology (4)
- Ornithology (0)
- Parasitology (8)
- Pathology (478)
- Physiology (61)
- Plant Sciences (363)
- Reproductive Biology (10)
- Toxicology (20)
- Veterinary Sciences (12)
- Virology (226)
- Zoology (126)
- Others (77)
Updated time: 12 Jan 2021
Definition: The effects of airway inflammation on airway smooth muscle (ASM) are mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα).
Updated time: 28 Aug 2020
Definition: The entry tries to summarize our current understanding of the role of aminopeptidases in the control of blood pressure, through their effects on kidney function. Their possible role as biomarkers on acute or chronic kidney injury is also analyzed.
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Definition: We live and to do so we must breathe and eat, so are we a combination of what we eat and breathe? Here we will consider this question, and the role in this respect of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Emerging evidence suggests that AMPK facilitates central and peripheral reflexes that coordinate breathing and oxygen supply, and contributes to central regulation of feeding and food choice. We propose, therefore, that oxygen supply to the body is aligned with not only the quantity we eat, but also nutrient-based diet selection, and that the cell-specific expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms is critical to appropriate system alignment in this respect. If this is the case, then aberrant cell-specific changes in the expression of AMPK subunit isoforms could give rise, in part, to known associations between a wide variety of conditions associated with metabolic disorder.
Updated time: 07 Jul 2020
Definition: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western and developing world, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing with the longer lifespan afforded by our modern lifestyle. Vascular diseases including coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke comprise the majority of cardiovascular disease and therefore represent a significant medical and socioeconomic burden on our society. It is not be surprising that these conditions overlap and potentiate each other when we consider the many cellular and molecular similarities between them. At the molecular level, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is the target, integrator, and effector cell of both atherogenic and the major effector protein of the hypertensive signal, Angiotensin II (Ang II). Together, these signals can potentiate each other and prime the artery and exacerbate hypertension and atherosclerosis. Therefore, VSMC are the fulcrum in progression of these diseases and therefore, understanding the effects of atherogenic stimuli and Ang II on VSMC is key to understanding and treating atherosclerosis and hypertension. In this review, we will examine studies in which hypertension and atherosclerosis intersect on the VSMC, and illustrate common pathways between these two diseases and vascular aging.
Updated time: 24 Dec 2020
Definition: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane water channel proteins that control osmotically-driven water transport across cell membranes. Recent studies have focused on the assessment of fluid flux regulation in relation to the biological processes that maintain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) physiology. In particular, AQPs seem to regulate MSC proliferation through rapid regulation of the cell volume. Furthermore, several reports have shown that AQPs play a crucial role in modulating MSC attachment to the extracellular matrix, their spread, and migration. This review aims to describe the recent findings on AQPs role in MSCs physiology taking into account their reflex for potential applicatio in regenerative medicine.
Updated time: 22 Sep 2020
Abstract: After graduating from the State University of Tomsk in 1976 (MD in biology), Arcady Putilov received his first PhD (Doctoral Candidate) from the Institute of Physiology in 1985 (in animal and human physiology), and his second PhD (Doctor of Science) from the Medical University of Tomsk in 1999 (in normal physiology). Since 1976, he was affiliated with the Institute of Physiology. In 1995, he moved to the Institute for General Pathology and Human Ecology, Novosibirsk, and, in 1995-1999, he was also affiliated with the International Scientific Center ARKTIKA (the Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, and the University of Alaska, Anchorage). Currently, Dr. Putilov 's academic positions include chief researcher at the Research Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics of the Federal Research Centre for Fundamental and Translational Medicine, head of independent research group for Mathematical Modeling of Biomedical Systems (MMBMS). His experimental studies are regularly supported by research grants from the Russian Foundation for Basic Science and the Russian Foundation for Humanities. The results of his early scientific studies on various rhythmic phenomena were summarized in the monograph Systemforming Function of Synchronization in the Living Nature (Science: Novosibirsk, 1987 [in Russian]). The results of his more recent research on structuring individual variation were reviewed in the monograph Geometry of Individual Variation in Personality and Sleep-Wake Adaptability (Nova Science Pub Inc: New York, 4 editions published between 2010 and 2011 in English and held by 63 libraries worldwide). His several works appealing to lay audience of Russian-speaking readers include a book "Larks", "Owls" and Other… (1997, 1st ed., 2003, 2nd ed., and 2005, 3rd ed.) and historical essays “Evolution of psychology: history of basic psychological and biological theories in the mirror of evolutionary psychology” (2013) and “History and state-of-the-art review of experimental research on biological rhythms: From observations of leaf movements to forced desynchrony studies” (2016). Dr. Putilov is the first and/or corresponding author of 95% of several dozen research papers on chronobiology, somnology, personality, and biological psychiatry published in peer reviewed international journals (Frontiers in Physiology, Chronobiology International, Biological Rhythm Research, Somnologie, Sleep Science, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Nature and Science of Sleep, Neuropsychopharmacology, Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Physiology and Behavior, Personality and Individual Differences, Journal of Individual Differences, International Journal of Psychophysiology, Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Journal of Psychophysiology, World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, Psychiatry Research, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Psychopathology, etc.). Since 1991, Dr. Putilov has served as a member of editorial board of Biological Rhythm Research (Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research in years 1970 – 1993) to be appointed in year 2016 for a position of co-editor of this journal. In more recent years, he joined the editorial boards of several online journals as an editor (including Section Editor-in-Chief for Clock&Sleep, Review Editor for Fractal Physiology section of Frontiers in Physiology, Consulting Editor for Nature and Science of Sleep, etc.). He also was Lead Guest Editor for Sleep Disorders (2011-2013) and Guest Editor for Current Aging Science (2014-2016). Moreover, he serves as a member of editorial board and/or peer reviewer for more than 50 other international journals. Dr. Putilov is experienced in giving lectures for academic, student and lay audiences. Since 1993, he has lectured at the Humanitarian Academy of Siberia, the Classical Institute, and the Novosibirsk State University (Novosibirsk). In 2002-2004 he organized a series of the International Siberian Indian Summer Schools on Human Ethology. In 2001-2003, his work on a textbook on evolutionary psychology was supported by a grant from Russian Foundation for Humanities (Human zoological psychology: Mind of men and women in the mirror of evolution). In 2016, he served as an invited lecturer at the 9th International Workshop for Young Scientists Sleep - a window to the world of wakefulness (Moscow State University, Moscow). Dr. Putilov participated in presentation of innovative technologies in the exposition of the Russian Ministry for Science and Education (e.g., at Internationale Funkausstellung, Berlin, 2001, Hanover Messe, Hannover, 2007, etc.). He was included in Who Is Who in Russian Science and profiled in Marquis Who's Who in the World and The Achievements of Chronobiology and Chronomedicine (Yerevan: Noyan Tapan, 2002, p. 215).
Updated time: 31 Jul 2020
Definition: B-Cell Lymphoma-extra-large (BCL-xL) is involved in longevity and successful aging,which indicates a role for BCL-xL in cell survival pathway regulation. Beyond its well described role as an inhibitor of apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release, BCL-xL has also been related, indirectly, to autophagy and senescence pathways. Although in these latter cases, BCL-xL has dual roles, either activating or inhibiting, depending on the cell type and the specific conditions. Taken together, all these findings suggest a precise mechanism of action for BCL-xL, able to regulate the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence, thus promoting cell survival or cell death. All three pathways can be both beneficial or detrimental depending on the circumstances. Thus, targeting BCL-xL would in turn be a “double-edge sword” and therefore, additional studies are needed to better comprehend this dual and apparently contradictory role of BCL-XL in longevity.
Updated time: 27 Oct 2020
Definition: The Bland–Altman Limits of Agreement is a popular and widespread means of analyzing the agreement of two methods, instruments, or raters in quantitative outcomes. An agreement analysis could be reported as a stand-alone research article but it is more often conducted as a minor quality assurance project in a subgroup of patients, as a part of a larger diagnostic accuracy study, clinical trial, or epidemiological survey. Consequently, such an analysis is often limited to brief descriptions in the main report. Therefore, in several medical fields, it has been recommended to report specific items related to the Bland–Altman analysis. Seven proposals were identified from a MEDLINE/PubMed search on March 03, 2020, three of which were derived by reviewing anesthesia journals. Broad consensus was seen for the a priori establishment of acceptability benchmarks, estimation of repeatability of measurements, description of the data structure, visual assessment of the normality and homogeneity assumption, and plotting and numerically reporting both bias and the Bland–Altman Limits of Agreement, including respective 95% confidence intervals. Abu-Arafeh et al. provided the most comprehensive and prudent list, identifying 13 key items for reporting (Br. J. Anaesth. 2016, 117, 569–575). The 13 key items should be applied by researchers, journal editors, and reviewers in the future, to increase the quality of reporting Bland–Altman agreement analyses.
Updated time: 29 Oct 2020
Definition: This entry provides information relevant to public health policy regarding advisable exposure limits for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) that have no biologic role in humans. All of their perceptible effects are toxic. These metals exist in virtually all foodstuffs. Foods which are frequently consumed in large quantities such as cereals, rice, potatoes and vegetables contribute the most to total intake of these metals. Because Cd and Pb exposure are highly prevalent, even a small increase in disease risk can result in a large number of people affected by a disease that is preventable. Public measures to minimize environmental pollution and the food-chain transfer of Cd and Pb are required to prevent Cd- and Pb- related ailments and mortality as are risk reduction measures that set a maximally permissible concentration of Cd and Pb in staple food to the lowest achievable levels.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
Updated time: 25 Dec 2020
Definition: Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is an important second messenger that regulates multiple cellular functions, such as synaptic plasticity, action potentials, and learning and memory. Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, on the other hand, contributes to detrimental mechanisms such as necrosis, apoptosis, autophagy deficits, and neurodegeneration. Perturbations in intracellular Ca2+ are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. Ca2+ dyshomeostasis is an early event in the AD timeline. Ca2+ dysregulation in AD comes as a result of hyperactivity of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. It does not seem to be restricted to neurons, but rather is a global phenomenon that affects many cell types in the brain.