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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Marcello Cherchi
Definition: The idea of cervicogenic vertigo (CV) was proposed nearly a century ago, yet despite considerable scrutiny and research, little progress has been made in clarifying the underlying mechanism of the disease, developing a confirmatory diagnostic test, or devising an appropriately targeted treatment. Given the history of this idea, we offer a review geared towards understanding why so many attempts at clarifying it have failed, with specific comments regarding how CV fits into the broader landscape of positional vertigo syndromes, what a successful diagnostic test might require, and some practical advice on how to approach this in the absence of a diagnostic test.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Oct 2021
Submitted by: Davide Brotto
Definition: Inner ear malformations are a spectrum of congenital anomalies involving the inner ear structures with an emphasis on the cochlea due to their implications for sensorineural hearing loss.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Davide De Cicco
Definition: The scope of the present entry was to highlight possible sources of bias that could be encountered when evaluating HRQOL (Health-Related Quality of Life) in patients treated for oral cancer. The second aim was to lay the foundation of a standardized protocol for cohort selection, data collection, and stratification that could enhance knowledge in the field.
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Topic review
Updated time: 03 Aug 2021
Definition: Myofunctional therapy (MFT) may have a role in improving muscle tone and alleviating upper airway collapse in sleep-disordered breathing. The purposes of this state-of-the-art review are to first review systematically the current literature on the effectiveness of MFT in treating sleep-disordered breathing and then to provide an overview of the current understanding of patient selection, side effects, type and duration of exercises, guidance of exercise performance, evaluation of results, and how best to promote adherence. PubMed (Medline), the Cochrane Library, and the EMBASE, Scopus and SciELO databases were checked for relevant studies by three authors, and a total of 23 studies were included.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Ricardo Figueiredo
Definition: Altered smell is one of the most prevalent symptoms in acute COVID-19 infection. Although most patients recover normal neurosensory function in a few weeks, approximately one-tenth of patients report long-term smell dysfunction, including anosmia, hyposmia, parosmia and phantosmia, with a particularly notable impact on quality of life. In this complex scenario, inflammation and cellular damage may play a key role in the pathogenesis of olfactory dysfunctions and may affect olfactory signaling from the peripheral to the central nervous system.
Entry Collection : COVID-19
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Georgia Liva
Definition: Rhinitis describes a pattern of symptoms as a result of nasal inflammation and/or dysfunction of the nasal mucosa. It is an umbrella entity that includes many different subtypes, several of which escape of complete characterization. Rhinitis is considered as a pathologic condition with considerable morbidity and financial burden on health care systems worldwide. Its economic impact is further emphasized by the fact that it represents a risk factor for other conditions such as sinusitis, asthma, learning disabilities, behavioral changes, and psychological impairment. Rhinitis may be associated with many etiologic triggers such as infections, immediate-type allergic responses, inhaled irritants, medications, hormonal disturbances, and neural system dysfunction.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Chao-Hui Yang
Definition: The triad of noise-generated, drug-induced, and age-related hearing loss is the major cause of acquired sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) in modern society. Although these three forms of hearing loss display similar underlying mechanisms, detailed studies have revealed the presence of sex differences in the auditory system both in human and animal models of ASNHL. However, the sexual dimorphism of hearing varies among noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), ototoxicity, and age-related hearing loss (ARHL).
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jul 2021
Definition: Otorhinolaryngology enrolls head and neck surgery in various tissues such as ear, nose, and throat (ENT) that govern different activities such as hearing, breathing, smelling, production of vocal sounds, the balance, deglutition, facial animation, air filtration and humidification, and articulation during speech, while absence of these functions can lead to high morbidity and even mortality. Conventional therapies for head and neck damaged tissues include grafts, transplants, and artificial materials, but grafts have limited availability and cause morbidity in the donor site. To improve these limitations, regenerative medicine, as a novel and rapidly growing field, has opened a new therapeutic window in otorhinolaryngology by using cell transplantation to target the healing and replacement of injured tissues. There is a high risk of rejection and tumor formation for transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) lack these drawbacks. They have easy expansion and antiapoptotic properties with a wide range of healing and aesthetic functions that make them a novel candidate in otorhinolaryngology for craniofacial defects and diseases and hold immense promise for bone tissue healing; even the tissue sources and types of MSCs, the method of cell introduction and their preparation quality can influence the final outcome in the injured tissue.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Miquel Quer
Definition: Warthin tumor (WT) is a benign salivary gland tumor composed of oncocytic epithelial cells lining ductal, papillary, and cystic structures in a lymphoid stroma. Is the second most common salivary gland tumor. WT commonly affect individuals in ther sixth to seventh decade and have a link to cigarette smoking.
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