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Topic review
Updated time: 28 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Mustapha Jouiad
Definition: Two-dimensional (2D) materials are generally defined as crystalline substances with a few atoms thickness.Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMDs) semiconducting (SC) materials have exhibited unique optical and electrical properties. The layered configuration of the 2D-TMDs materials is at the origin of their strong interaction with light and the relatively high mobility of their charge carriers, which in turn prompted their use in many optoelectronic applications, such as ultra-thin field-effect transistors, photo-detectors, light emitting diode, and solar-cells. Generally, 2D-TMDs form a family of graphite-like layered thin semiconducting structures with the chemical formula of MX2, where M refers to a transition metal atom (Mo, W, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (Se, S, etc.). The layered nature of this class of 2D materials induces a strong anisotropy in their electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. In particular, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is the most studied layered 2D-TMD.
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 May 2021
Submitted by: Lei Wei
Definition: Specialty fibers have enabled a wide range of sensing applications. Particularly, with the recent advancement of anti-resonant effects, specialty fibers with hollow structures offer a unique sensing platform to achieve highly accurate and ultra-compact fiber optic sensors with large measurement ranges. Enabled by the specialty fiber manufacturing industry, AR-HCFs have shown great potential in optical fiber communication and sensing. AR-HCFs have very low transmission loss, optical nonlinearity, and chromatic dispersion over a broad bandwidth. They also have intrinsic advantages of high sensitivity, compact structures, and robust operation. All these remarkable advantages promote diversified sensing applications of AR-HCF. As a functionalized device, it has been extensively used for common parameter sensing, including solid, gas, and liquid.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Muhammad Ali BUTT
Definition: Diffraction is a phenomenon related to the wave nature of light and arises when a propagating wave comes across an obstacle. Consequently, the wave can be transformed in amplitude or phase and diffraction occurs. Those parts of the wavefront avoiding an obstacle form a diffraction pattern after interfering with each other. In this review paper, we have discussed the topic of non-diffractive beams, explicitly Bessel beams. Such beams provide some resistance to diffraction and hence are hypothetically a phenomenal alternate to Gaussian beams in several circumstances. Several outstanding applications are coined to Bessel beams and have been employed in commercial applications. We have discussed several hot applications based on these magnificent beams such as optical trapping, material processing, free-space long-distance self-healing beams, optical coherence tomography, superresolution, sharp focusing, polarization transformation, increased depth of focus, birefringence detection based on astigmatic transformed BB and encryption in optical communication. According to our knowledge, each topic presented in this entry is justifiably explained.
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Topic review
Updated time: 20 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Michael Schoening
Definition: Electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) field-effect sensors belong to a new generation of electronic chips for biochemical sensing, enabling a direct electronic readout. The review gives an overview on recent advances and current trends in the research and development of chemical sensors and biosensors based on the capacitive field-effect EIS structure—the simplest field-effect device, which represents a biochemically sensitive capacitor. Fundamental concepts, physicochemical phenomena underlying the transduction mechanism and application of capacitive EIS sensors for the detection of pH, ion concentrations, and enzymatic reactions, as well as the label-free detection of charged molecules (nucleic acids, proteins, and polyelectrolytes) and nanoparticles, are presented and discussed.
Topic review
Updated time: 13 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gabriela Lima
Definition: Plasma is an electrically conducting medium that responds to electric and magnetic fields. Most of the visible matter in the universe (about 99%), such as stars, nebulas and interstellar medium, is in the state of plasma. It consists of large quantities of highly reactive species, such as ions, energetic electrons, exited atoms and molecules, ultraviolet photons, and active radicals in different temperatures. Non-thermal or cold plasmas are partially ionized gases whose electron temperatures usually exceed several tens of thousand degrees K, while the ions and neutrals have much lower temperatures. Due to the presence of reactive species at low temperature, the biological effects of non-thermal plasmas have been studied for application in the medical area with promising results.
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Topic review
Updated time: 10 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Mária Domonkos
Definition: Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) technology has received substantial attention due to its valuable properties including operational simplicity, low running cost, and environmental friendliness. Several different gases (air, nitrogen, helium, argon) and techniques (corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge, plasma jet) can be used to generate plasma at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. Plasma treatment is routinely used in materials science to modify the surface properties (e.g., wettability, chemical composition, adhesion) of a wide range of materials (e.g., polymers, textiles, metals, glasses). Moreover, CAPP seems to be a powerful tool for the inactivation of various pathogens (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses) in the food industry (e.g., food and packing material decontamination, shelf life extension), agriculture (e.g., disinfection of seeds, fertilizer, water, soil) and medicine (e.g., sterilization of medical equipment, implants). Plasma medicine also holds great promise for direct therapeutic treatments in dentistry (tooth bleaching), dermatology (atopic eczema, wound healing) and oncology (melanoma, glioblastoma).
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Meishan Zhao
Definition: Several metals and many alloys are in liquid form around room temperature, e.g., mercury (Hg, −38.8 °C), francium (Fr, 8.0 °C), cesium (Sc, 28.5 °C), gallium (Ga, 29.8 °C), the eutectic mercury-based alloys, and the eutectic gallium-based alloys. If eutectic, liquid metal alloys can be in liquid form that has been used in practical applications, replacing mercury. Liquid metals have high thermal and electric conductivity and have been used to conduct heat and electricity between non-metallic and metallic surfaces. They have also been used as thermal interface materials between coolers and processors. Concerning these metals, our understanding of the liquid-vapor interface is critical for proper applications. This entry summarizes the basic features of the density distribution of liquid metal-vapor interface, which are advanced based on pseudo-potential representation and numerical simulation at the University of Chicago.
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Topic review
Updated time: 31 Mar 2021
Submitted by: Ilaria Rea
Definition: Porous materials showing some useful transducing features, i.e., any changes in their physical or chemical properties as a consequence of molecular interaction, are very attractive in the realization of sensors and biosensors. Diatom frustules have been gaining support for biosensors since they are made of nanostructured amorphous silica, but do not require any nano-fabrication step; their surface can be easily functionalized and customized for specific application; diatom frustules are photoluminescent, and they can be found in almost every pond of water on the Earth, thus assuring large and low-cost availability.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Ciro D'Amico
Definition: Direct ultrafast laser processing is nowadays considered the most flexible technique allowing to generate complex 3D optical functions in bulk glasses. The fact that the built-in optical element is embedded in the material brings several advantages in terms of prototype stability and lifetime, but equally in terms of complexity and number of possible applications, due to the 3D design. The generated optical functions, and in particular the single mode character of the light guiding element alongside the accessibility toward different spectral windows, depend on the refractive index contrast that can be achieved within the material transparency window and on the characteristic dimensions of the optical modification. In particular, the accessibility to the infrared and mid-infrared spectral domains, and to the relevant applications in sensing and imaging, requires increasing the cross-section of the guiding element in order to obtain the desired normalized frequency. Moreover, efficient signal extraction from the transported light requires nanometer size void-like index structures. All this demands a thorough knowledge and an optimal control of the material response within the interaction with the ultrafast laser pulse.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Chuan-Pei Lee
Definition: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to traditional silicon-based solar cells due to their relatively high conversion efficiency, low cost, flexibility, and environmentally benign fabrication processes.
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