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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Birthe Nielsen
Definition: There are established links between free radicals and more than sixty different human health conditions, including ageing, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, strokes, heart attacks, and atherosclerosis. Consumption of higher levels of dietary antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant molecules-enriched food or antioxidant supplements has been found to reduce the risk of free radical-related health issues. The green halotolerant microalgae Dunaliella can grow in a wide range of saline environments and is a potential natural source for antioxidant production.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Tongyu Wang
Definition: BIO-Argo float (chlorophyll a (Chl-a), temperature, and salinity profiles) and remote sensing data (Chl-a, photosynthetic available radiation (PAR), and wind) located south of the Kuroshio current near Shikoku from September 2018 to May 2019 were used to study phytoplankton bloom and their mechanisms of development in open oceans.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Daniel Alongi
Definition: The carbon cycle in mangrove ecosystems is an important biogeochemical pathway in understanding the links between this forest ecosystem and both the atmosphere and the adjacent coastal ocean. Mangroves are a major habitat in the coastal zone for storing carbon in the soils of their deep forest floor, and for exporting to adjacent coastal seas significant quantities of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The large export of DIC is sufficient to result in adjacent coastal waters becoming a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in tropical and subtropical latitudes.
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Videos
Updated time: 21 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
Climate variations have always impacted our ocean and coastal systems. A global concern is that the near-future rate of climate change may reach levels of which the impact is beyond our capacity to respond. Is it possible to make our oceans and/or coasts climate proof or if not can we achieve successful adaptation and mitigation measures? The video below will address these issues albeit in a focused sense. Three contributions will be presented on (1) impact of climate change on our oceans, (2) impact of climate change on the Venice Lagoon and (3) impact of climate change on the Mississippi Delta.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Borja Reguero
Definition: The Earth’s climate is changing; ice sheets and glaciers are melting and coastal hazards and sea level are rising in response. With a total population of over 300 million people situated on coasts, including 20 of the planet’s 33 megacities (over 10 million people), low-lying coastal areas represent one of the most vulnerable areas to the impacts of climate change. The need to identify and implement adaptation solutions to the impacts of climate change in coastal zones is urgent.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Definition: The shoreline of Malaysia is exposed to threats of coastal erosion and a rise of sea level. The National Coastal Erosion Study, 2015 reported that 15% of an 8840 km shoreline is currently eroding, where one-third of those falls under the critical and significant categories that require structural protection. The Study of Sea Level Rise in Malaysia, 2017 presented a sea-level increase of 0.67–0.74 mm on average yearly.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Dennis A. Hansell
Definition: Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) holds ~660 billion metric tons of carbon, making it one of Earth’s major carbon reservoirs that is exchangeable with the atmosphere on annual to millennial time scales. The global ocean scale dynamics of the pool have become better illuminated over the past few decades.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Oct 2020
Submitted by: José Santos
Definition: Marine bacterial natural products are molecules produced by marine bacteria through secondary metabolism genes, which can provide them with competitive advantages. Certain natural products can have bioactiveeffects (e.g. antimicrobial properties) and thus can be used by humans as therapeutics or leads for novel therapeutics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 08 Sep 2021
Submitted by: Bopaiah Biddanda
Definition: Extant microbial mats already present on Earth provide useful working analog models for the exploration of life in extraterrestrial hydrospheres.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 11 Aug 2021
Submitted by: Joanna Przedrzymirska
Definition: Conserving and sustainably uing oceans, seas, and marine resources constitutes one of the key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations Agenda 2030. The key issue in this context is an amplification of human utilization of marine space and the latter’s more extensive exploitation for economic purposes. As a result, marine sea space is becoming a scarce resource, requiring careful management, and can no longer be perceived as infinite and abundant. Maritime multi-use could as a territorial/SPATIAL governance instrument for the enhancement of sustainable development in five EU sea basins. Multi-use (MU) is expected to enhance the productivity of blue economy sectors, as well as deliver additional socio-economic benefits related to the environmental and social dimensions of sustainable development.
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