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Topic review
Updated time: 10 May 2021
Submitted by: Birthe Nielsen
Definition: There are established links between free radicals and more than sixty different human health conditions, including ageing, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, strokes, heart attacks, and atherosclerosis. Consumption of higher levels of dietary antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant molecules-enriched food or antioxidant supplements has been found to reduce the risk of free radical-related health issues. The green halotolerant microalgae Dunaliella can grow in a wide range of saline environments and is a potential natural source for antioxidant production.
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Topic review
Updated time: 29 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Tongyu Wang
Definition: BIO-Argo float (chlorophyll a (Chl-a), temperature, and salinity profiles) and remote sensing data (Chl-a, photosynthetic available radiation (PAR), and wind) located south of the Kuroshio current near Shikoku from September 2018 to May 2019 were used to study phytoplankton bloom and their mechanisms of development in open oceans.
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Daniel Alongi
Definition: The carbon cycle in mangrove ecosystems is an important biogeochemical pathway in understanding the links between this forest ecosystem and both the atmosphere and the adjacent coastal ocean. Mangroves are a major habitat in the coastal zone for storing carbon in the soils of their deep forest floor, and for exporting to adjacent coastal seas significant quantities of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The large export of DIC is sufficient to result in adjacent coastal waters becoming a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in tropical and subtropical latitudes.
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Videos
Updated time: 21 Oct 2020
Submitted by: Camila Xu
Climate variations have always impacted our ocean and coastal systems. A global concern is that the near-future rate of climate change may reach levels of which the impact is beyond our capacity to respond. Is it possible to make our oceans and/or coasts climate proof or if not can we achieve successful adaptation and mitigation measures? The video below will address these issues albeit in a focused sense. Three contributions will be presented on (1) impact of climate change on our oceans, (2) impact of climate change on the Venice Lagoon and (3) impact of climate change on the Mississippi Delta.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Jul 2021
Definition: The shoreline of Malaysia is exposed to threats of coastal erosion and a rise of sea level. The National Coastal Erosion Study, 2015 reported that 15% of an 8840 km shoreline is currently eroding, where one-third of those falls under the critical and significant categories that require structural protection. The Study of Sea Level Rise in Malaysia, 2017 presented a sea-level increase of 0.67–0.74 mm on average yearly.
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Topic review
Updated time: 15 Oct 2020
Submitted by: José Santos
Definition: Marine bacterial natural products are molecules produced by marine bacteria through secondary metabolism genes, which can provide them with competitive advantages. Certain natural products can have bioactiveeffects (e.g. antimicrobial properties) and thus can be used by humans as therapeutics or leads for novel therapeutics.
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Mar 2021
Submitted by: GEORGIOS SYLAIOS
Definition: Several oil spill simulation models exist in the literature, which are used worldwide to simulate the evolution of an oil slick created from marine traffic, petroleum production, or other sources. These models may range from simple parametric calculations to advanced, new-generation, operational, three-dimensional numerical models, coupled to meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave models, forecasting in high-resolution and with high precision the transport and fate of oil. This study presents a review of the transport and oil weathering processes and their parameterization and critically examines eighteen state-of-the-art oil spill models in terms of their capacity (a) to simulate these processes, (b) to consider oil released from surface or submerged sources, (c) to assimilate real-time field data for model initiation and forcing, and (d) to assess uncertainty in the produced predictions. Based on our review, the most common oil weathering processes involved are spreading, advection, diffusion, evaporation, emulsification, and dispersion. The majority of existing oil spill models do not consider significant physical processes, such as oil dissolution, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and vertical mixing. Moreover, timely response to oil spills is lacking in the new generation of oil spill models. Further improvements in oil spill modeling should emphasize more comprehensive parametrization of oil dissolution, biodegradation, entrainment, and prediction of oil particles size distribution following wave action and well blow outs.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Sep 2020
Submitted by: Pedro Menandro
Definition: Over the last few centuries, mapping the ocean seabed has been a major challenge for marine geoscientists. Knowledge of seabed bathymetry and morphology has significantly impacted our understanding of our planet dynamics. The history and scientific trends of seabed mapping can be assessed by data mining prior studies. Here, we have mined the scientific literature using the keyword “seabed mapping” to investigate and provide the evolution of mapping methods and emphasize the main trends and challenges over the last 90 years. An increase in related scientific production was observed in the beginning of the 1970s, together with an increased interest in new mapping technologies. The last two decades have revealed major shift in ocean mapping. The future of seabed mapping brings high expectations, considering that this is one of the main research and development themes for the United Nations Decade of the Oceans. We may expect a new higher resolution ocean seafloor map that might be as influential as The Floor of the Oceans map.
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Topic review
Updated time: 25 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Gongzheng Ma
Definition: Geological structure changes, including deformations and ruptures, developed in shallow marine sediments are well recognized but were not systematically reviewed in previous studies. These structures, generally developed at a depth less than 1000 m below seafloor, are considered to play a significant role in the migration, accumulation, and emission of hydrocarbon gases and fluids, and the formation of gas hydrates, and they are also taken as critical factors affecting carbon balance in the marine environment.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Roberto Iacono
Definition: Knowledge about marine circulation and its variability is a basic requirement for the correct management of activities aimed at exploiting marine resources and for the prevention and eventual mitigation of the risks involved. The activities of the Marine Hazard Project, to which this special number of Sustainability is dedicated, focus on geothermal resources connected with some submerged volcanic systems located in the Tyrrhenian Sea. This sea hosts delicate coastal and marine ecosystems, and is characterized by rich dynamics, both driven by the interaction of the local forcing with the complex morphology and bathymetry of the basin, and by exchanges with adjacent sub-basins which take place at all depths.
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