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Topic review
Updated time: 16 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Fazila Younas
Definition: Wastewater generation and treatment is an ever-increasing concern in the current century due to increased urbanization and industrialization. To tackle the situation of increasing environmental hazards, numerous wastewater treatment approaches are used—i.e., physical, chemical, and biological (primary to tertiary treatment) methods. Various treatment techniques being used have the risks of producing secondary pollutants. The most promising technique is the use of different materials as adsorbents that have a higher efficacy in treating wastewater, with a minimal production of secondary pollutants. Biosorption is a key process that is highly efficient and cost-effective. This method majorly uses the adsorption process/mechanism for toxicant removal from wastewater.
Entry Collection : Wastewater Treatment
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Oct 2020
Definition: Optical and thermal remote sensing data have been an important tool in geological exploration for certain deposit types. However, the present economic and technological advances demand the adaptation of the remote sensing data and image processing techniques to the exploration of other raw materials like lithium (Li). A review of the application studies and developments in this field was also made. The addressed topics include: (i) achievements made in Li exploration using remote sensing methods; (ii) the main weaknesses of the approaches; (iii) how to overcome these difficulties; and (iv) the expected research perspectives. We expect that the number of studies concerning this topic will increase in the near future and that remote sensing will become an integrated and fundamental tool in Li exploration.
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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Solange Numfor
Definition: End-of-life vehicle is a vehicle that has reached the end of its useful life and requires proper treatment.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Andrey Kunshin
Definition: The development of markets for low-carbon energy sources requires reconsideration of issues related to extraction and use of oil and gas. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are concentrated in Arctic territories, e.g., 30% of the world’s undiscovered natural gas reserves and 13% of oil. Associated petroleum gas, natural gas and gas condensate could be able to expand the scope of their applications. Natural gas is the main raw material for the production of hydrogen and ammonia, which are considered promising primary energy resources of the future, the oxidation of which does not release CO2. Complex components contained in associated petroleum gas and gas condensate are valuable chemical raw materials to be used in a wide range of applications. This article presents conceptual Gas-To-Chem solutions for the development of Arctic oil and gas condensate fields, taking into account the current trends to reduce the carbon footprint of products, the formation of commodity exchanges for gas chemistry products, as well as the course towards the creation of hydrogen energy. The concept is based on modern gas chemical technologies with an emphasis on the production of products with high added value and low carbon footprint.
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Topic review
Updated time: 30 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Kyung-Sook Choi
Definition: The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an environmental-impact assessment method is gaining increasing attention all over the world due to the urgent need for the preservation and sustainability of the environment. Commonly utilized in the environmental analysis of businesses, industries, products, and services, this assessment method promoted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative, the Forum for Sustainability through Life Cycle Assessment (FSLCI), International reference Life Cycle Database System (ILCD), the European reference Life Cycle Database system (ELCD), and a host of others aims at improving environmental performance towards the achievement of economically viable, safe, and sustainable societies. In Korea, LCA has drawn much attention from both industry and academia since the mid-90s, hence this study assessed the status of environmental LCA studies as it concerns the country. The Life Cycle Assessment technique serves as an important means of identifying the environmental impact of products or services throughout their entire life cycle stages.
Entry Collection : Environmental Sciences
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Topic review
Updated time: 02 Dec 2020
Submitted by: Thomas Smith
Definition: Martian Atmospheric Noble Gas Measurements refer to technologies to measure Martian atmospheric noble gases in situ by entry probes and in laboratory in Martian meteorites.
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Topic review
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Vineet Tirth
Definition: Sustainability of agricultural practices depends on economic, environmental, and social conditions. The Rajasthan state of India has arid climatic conditions where kharif crops are commonly grown. In this work, the four major criteria are considered such as the farm area, crop yield per unit area, the cost prices, and the market sales price. Merged analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy techniques have been employed to give reasonable weight coefficients for the objective and subjective weights to each criterion. Multiple attribute-based decision-making models (MADM) have been developed using three proven techniques, namely the Exprom2, the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), and the VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I KompromisnoResenje (VIKOR). The crop Pennisetum glaucum emerged as the most productive kharif crop in the arid climatic conditions of Rajasthan, India under the given criteria. The sensitivity analysis of the three methods identifies the most significant criteria and validates that Pennisetum glaucum is the first ranked crop despite the interchange of the weights. The methodology used in this study may be applied across the globe to select appropriate crops for maximizing the profit, optimizing the natural resources, and promoting sustainable agricultural practices. This study may be used to enhance the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) to make the agriculturalists self-sufficient and to help the state policymakers in making elective regional policies.
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Biography
Updated time: 05 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Niki Evelpidou
Abstract: Brief biography of Prof. Niki Evelpidou, Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
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Biography
Updated time: 10 Nov 2020
Submitted by: Pedro JM Costa
Abstract: My research focus on the study of coastal processes using geomorphological and sedimentological data coupled with physical and numerical modeling to understand morphological and sediment changes caused by natural hazards (e.g. tsunamis and storms) and their impacts on the environment. I also work on the establishment of provenance relationships in siliciclastic sediments, aspects of aeolian sediment transport, Antarctic soils, Mars geology and geoarchaeological studies.
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Topic review
Updated time: 26 Jan 2021
Submitted by: Cyril O'Connor
Definition: Russia and South Africa are the world’s leading producers of platinum group elements (PGEs). This places them in a unique position regarding the supply of these two key industrial commodities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative high-level overview of aspects of the geological occurrence, mineralogy, and processing by flotation of the platinum group minerals (PGMs) found in each country. A summary of some of the major challenges faced in each country in terms of the concentration of the ores by flotation is presented alongside the opportunities that exist to increase the production of the respective metals. These include the more efficient recovery of minerals such as arsenides and tellurides, the management of siliceous gangue and chromite in the processing of these ores, and, especially in Russia, the development of novel processing routes to recover PGEs from relatively low grade ores occurring in dunites, black shale ores and in vanadium-iron-titanium-sulphide oxide formations.
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