The principal objective of wastewater treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. Typical processes that are investigated and applied to wastewater treatment can be the following: biological, adsorption, flocculation, oxidation, membranes, filtration, etc. This entry collection features information about many processes of wastewater treatment and many other related issues such as reuse, cost, fluid aspects, plants, etc.

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Topic Review
Hydrogel Adsorbents
The performance of hydrogel adsorbents depends on the constituents of the gels and the functions produced by the polymer networks of the gels. Research on hydrogels utilizing the characteristic functions of polymer networks has increased over the last decade. The functions of polymer networks are key to the development of advanced adsorbents for the removal of various pollutants.
  • 74
  • 15 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Fundamentals of Chlorine Disinfection
Chlorine first reacts with organic and inorganic matters before pathogens inactivation. The amount of chlorine consumed in this process is termed chlorine demand. The combined chlorine that forms together with any free available chlorine in the water is called the chlorine residual. This is the component of the added chlorine that disinfects the water. Free available chlorine is formed by differences in the concentrations of hypochlorous and hypochlorite ions, a process that depends on the pH of the water. Even though the chlorination procedure is well-researched, establishing an appropriate chlorine dose remains a difficult task for many field applications. Nevertheless, the effective chlorine dose should be sufficient to destroy pathogens and oxidize the organic contaminants as well as maintain sufficient free available chlorine in the water distribution system, post-chlorination.
  • 102
  • 06 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Removal of Inorganic Nitrogen from Wastewater
Water contamination due to various nitrogenous pollutants generated from wastewater treatment plants is a crucial and ubiquitous environmental problem nowadays. Nitrogen contaminated water has manifold detrimental effects on human health as well as aquatic life. Consequently, various biological and bioelectrochemical treatment processes are employed to transform the undesirable forms of nitrogen in wastewater to safer ones for subsequent discharge.
  • 92
  • 27 May 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Neural Networks in Water Supply Systems Development
A water supply system is considered an essential service to the population as it is about providing an essential good for life. This system typically consists of several sensors, transducers, pumps, etc., and some of these elements have high costs and/or complex installation. The indirect measurement of a quantity can be used to obtain a desired variable, dispensing with the use of a specific sensor in the plant. Among the contributions of this technique is the design of the pressure controller using the adaptive control, as well as the use of an artificial neural network for the construction of nonlinear models using inherent system parameters such as pressure, engine rotation frequency and control valve angle, with the purpose of estimating the flow. 
  • 69
  • 27 May 2022
Topic Review
Hydroxyapatite and Derivatives for Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Applications
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is an attractive bioceramic from an environmental point of view. It mainly allows ion exchange between Ca2+ and other metal ions, making it an attractive material in the photodegradation of aquatic life effluents. Strategies for the performance of HAp-based functionalized material were reported, for example, doping, immobilization, deposition, incorporation, and support. Due to the production of stoichiometric defects capable of estimating response in the presence of light (UV, visible or solar) through charge carriers' interaction and/or mobility. Its favors photocatalytic performance and positive responses in the physicochemical properties to form an effective and sustainable photocatalyst.  
  • 105
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Classifications of Adsorptive Ultrafiltration Membrane
Adsorptive ultrafiltration mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are a new strategy, developed in recent years, to remove harmful cations and small-molecule organics from wastewater and drinking water, which achieve ultrafiltration and adsorption functions in one unit and are considered to be among the promising technologies that have exhibited efficiency and competence in water reuse.
  • 75
  • 17 May 2022
Topic Review
Wastewater Removal Strategies of Microplastic Pollution
Plastics have been one of the most useful materials in the world, due to their distinguishing characteristics: light weight, strength, flexibility, and good durability. In recent years, the growing consumption of plastics in industries and domestic applications has revealed a serious problem in plastic waste treatments. Pollution by microplastics has been recognized as a serious threat since it may contaminate all ecosystems, including oceans, terrestrial compartments, and the atmosphere. This micropollutant is spread in all types of environments and is serving as a “minor but efficient” vector for carrier contaminants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The need to deeply study and update the evolution of microplastic sources, toxicology, extraction and analysis, behavior and removal strategies is imperative.
  • 164
  • 11 May 2022
Topic Review
Sustainability Goals within the UK Water Industry
The UK water industry is subject to a rolling cycle of investment to meet regulatory requirements. Moreover, this sits within the context of a constant state of flux due to the changing climate and political and societal priorities. Therefore, interventions such as improved wastewater treatment (to reduce nutrient levels entering rivers) are likely to experience conditions over the asset life, which vary widely from design parameters. This leads to a cycle of modification and upgrading in order to maintain or improve treatment processes which could include abortive investment.
  • 81
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Power Generation in Sewage-Water Treatment Plants
Sewage-water treatment comprehends primary, secondary, and tertiary steps to produce reusable water after removing sewage contaminants. However, a sewage-water treatment plant is typically a power and energy consumer and produces high volumes of sewage sludge mainly generated in the primary and secondary steps. The use of more efficient anaerobic digestion of sewage water with sewage sludge can produce reasonable flowrates of biogas, which is shown to be a consolidated strategy towards the energy self-sufficiency and economic feasibility of sewage-water treatment plants. Anaerobic digestion can also reduce the carbon footprint of energy sources since the biogas produced can replace fossil fuels for electricity generation. 
  • 124
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Functional Materials for Wastewater Treatment
Functional materials play a central role in the advancement of these technologies due to their highly tunable properties and functions. 
  • 72
  • 27 Apr 2022
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