Summary

The principal objective of wastewater treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. Typical processes that are investigated and applied to wastewater treatment can be the following: biological, adsorption, flocculation, oxidation, membranes, filtration, etc. This entry collection features information about many processes of wastewater treatment and many other related issues such as reuse, cost, fluid aspects, plants, etc.

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Topic Review
Solar Energy Systems into Seawater Desalination
Solar energy, amongst all renewable energies, has attracted inexhaustible attention all over the world as a supplier of sustainable energy. The energy requirement of major seawater desalination processes such as multistage flash (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmosis (RO) are fulfilled by burning fossil fuels, which impact the environment significantly due to the emission of greenhouse gases. The integration of solar energy systems into seawater desalination processes is an attractive and alternative solution to fossil fuels. 
  • 108
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
TiO2-Based Membranes for Wastewater Treatment
The high separation efficiencies, relative low costs, small footprint, and ease of operation associated with integrated photocatalytic-membrane (IPM) technologies are gaining an all-inclusive attention. Conversely, photocatalysis and membrane technologies face some degree of setbacks, which limit their worldwide application in wastewater settings for the treatment of emerging contaminants.
  • 60
  • 21 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Electrospun Nanofiber-Based Membranes for Water Treatment
Electrospun nanofiber-based membranes (ENMs), benefitting from characteristics such as a higher specific surface area, higher porosity, lower thickness, and possession of attracted broad attention, has allowed it to evolve into a promising candidate rapidly. According to the roles of electrospun nanofiber layers, NMs can be divided into two categories: (i) nanofiber layer serving as a selective layer, (ii) nanofiber layer serving as supporting substrate.
  • 74
  • 19 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Occurrence of Triclosan in the Water Environment
Triclosan (TCS), a kind of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), is widely used and has had a large production over years. It is an emerging pollutant in the water environment that has attracted global attention due to its toxic effects on organisms and aquatic ecosystems, and its concentrations in the water environment are expected to increase since the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak.
  • 65
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Adsorptive Membrane for Boron Removal
The complexity of removing boron compounds from aqueous systems has received serious attention among researchers and inventors in the water treating industry. This is due to the higher level of boron in the aquatic ecosystem, which is caused by the geochemical background and anthropogenic factors. The gradual increase in the distribution of boron for years can become extremely toxic to humans, terrestrial organisms and aquatic organisms. Numerous methods of removing boron that have been executed so far can be classified under batch adsorption, membrane-based processes and hybrid techniques. Conventional water treatments such as coagulation, sedimentation and filtration do not significantly remove boron, and special methods would have to be installed in order to remove boron from water resources. The blockage of membrane pores by pollutants in the available membrane technologies not only decreases their performance but can make the membranes prone to fouling. Therefore, the surface-modifying flexibility in adsorptive membranes can serve as an advantage to remove boron from water resources efficiently. These membranes are attractive because of the dual advantage of adsorption/filtration mechanisms. 
  • 55
  • 05 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Methods for Removal of Ceftriaxone from Wastewater
Ceftriaxone is a type of antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial illnesses. The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface water and wastewater poses a threat to public health and has significant effects on the ecosystem. Since most wastewater treatment plants are ineffective at removing molecules efficiently, some pharmaceuticals enter aquatic ecosystems, thus creating issues such as antibiotic resistance and toxicity. 
  • 39
  • 29 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Management of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Purification
Municipal sewage sludge (MSS) is the residual material produced as a waste of municipal wastewater purification. It is a sophisticated multi-component material, hard to handle. For many years, it has been landfilled, incinerated, and widely used in agriculture practice. When unproperly discharged, it is very polluting and unhealthy. The rapidly increasing global amount of municipal sewage sludge produced annually depends on urbanization, degree of development, and lifestyle. Some diffused traditional practices were banned or became economically unfeasible or unacceptable by the communities. In contrast, it has been established that MSS contains valuable resources, which can be utilized as energy and fertilizer. Ambitious and costly plans for remediation, the modernization of regulations, collecting and purification systems, and beneficial waste management using a modern approach. The activated sludge process is the leading technology for wastewater purification, and anaerobic digestion is the leading technology for downstream waste. However, biological technologies appear inadequate and hydrothermal carbonization, already applicable at full scale, is the best candidate for playing a significant role in managing municipal sewage sludge produced by big towns and small villages.
  • 83
  • 25 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Applications of Electrosorption Technology in Water Treatment
The salt removal from water by using electrosorption has been studied since 1960s, and the application of this technology began in the mid-1990s when Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed the first set of electrosorption application devices in 1996.
  • 108
  • 19 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Nanotechnological Approaches for Removal of Persistent Organic Pollutants
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of hazardous chemical compounds that originate from anthropogenic activities during production, utilization, and disposal. They can impact living beings and the environment adversely because of their ease of transportation by wind and water. The level of hazardous persistent organic pollutants is increasing every day in the environment.
  • 130
  • 02 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Nanocatalysts Used in AOPs for Wastewater Treatment
The increase in population demands for industrialization and urbanization which led to the introduction of novel hazardous chemicals in our environment. The most significant parts of these harmful substances found in water bodies remain in the background, causing a health risk to humans and animals. It is critical to remove these toxic chemicals from the wastewater to keep a cleaner and greener environment. Hence, wastewater treatment is a challenging area these days to manage liquid wastes effectively. Therefore, scientists are in search of novel technologies to treat and recycle wastewater, and nanotechnology is one of them, thanks to the potential of nanoparticles to effectively clean wastewater while also being ecologically benign. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been extensively studied. Advanced oxidation processes can be defined as the processes and technologies which involve the generation of active species such as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) which act as efficient oxidants to decompose pollutants in wastewater treatment. 
  • 101
  • 28 Jul 2022
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