The advent of biopharmaceuticals in current medicine brought enormous benefits to the treatment of life-threatening human diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders), and improved the well-being of many people worldwide. The global portfolio of these therapeutic products include proteins and antibodies, nucleic acids, and cell-based products, and continues to expand at a rapid pace - approvals in the period 2015-2018 essentially double the typical five-yearly historical approval pace (G. Walsh, Nat. Biotechnol., 36:1136-1145, 2018) -, representing a significant share of the entire market of pharmaceuticals.

Innovation in the (bio)pharmaceutical industry has been driven towards the development of cost-effective manufacturing processes, envisaging the delivery of products in high quantity, with superior quality (purity), and high specificity, with the ultimate goal of benefiting patients. Progress in this direction have resulted from the application of novel technologies in the upstream stage (high-throughput, single-use devices, statistical optimization of media and fermentation conditions, QbD, and continuous processing), while at the downstream level, chromatography has evolved through the development of new resins and ligands, coupled with advances in process modelling, operating and control strategies.

An emerging trend is the application of alternative solvents such as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents, in which their structure and physicochemical properties can be tuned to address unmet needs in (bio)pharmaceutical research. These compounds may be derived from natural and reneawable sources and hold great promise in the development of efficient, sustainable and cost-effective biopharmaceuticals purification processes.

This Entry Collection aims to provide the latest progresses achieved in pharmaceuticals bioprocessing. We welcome submissions of original research, comprehensive reviews and perspectives, including, but not limited, to the following fields:

- Upstream processing (genetic engineering, systems biology, difficult-to-express proteins, expression conditions, Quality by Design approaches, process analytical technologies);

- Chromatographic purification methods (process modelling and control, continuous bioprocessing, design and characterization of resins and ligands, new formats);

- Alternative purification methods (aqueous biphasic systems, filtration, crystallization, precipitation);

- Application of neoteric solvents in upstream and downstream stages;

- Analytical characterization of biopharmaceuticals (stability, post-translational modifications, biological activity, immunogenicity); 

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Topic Review
Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection
Clostridioides difficile is the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea in the United States. The high incidence and recurrence rates of C. difficile infection (CDI), associated with high morbidity and mortality, pose a public health challenge. Although antibiotics targeting C. difficile bacteria are the first treatment choice, antibiotics also disrupt the indigenous gut flora and, therefore, create an environment that is favorable for recurrent CDI. The challenge of treating CDI is further exacerbated by the rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of C. difficile, placing it among the top five most urgent antibiotic resistance threats in the USA. The evolution of antibiotic resistance in C. difficile involves the acquisition of new resistance mechanisms, which can be shared among various bacterial species and different C. difficile strains within clinical and community settings.
  • 134
  • 01 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Endocannabinoid System Present in the Glioblastoma Tumour Microenvironment
The highly aggressive and invasive glioblastoma (GBM) tumour is the most malignant lesion among adult-type diffuse gliomas, representing the most common primary brain tumour in the neuro-oncology practice of adults. With a poor overall prognosis and strong resistance to treatment, this nervous system tumour requires new, innovative treatment. GBM is a polymorphic tumour consisting of an array of stromal cells and various malignant cells contributing to tumour initiation, progression, and treatment response. Cannabinoids possess anti-cancer potencies against glioma cell lines and in animal models. To improve existing treatment, cannabinoids as functionalised ligands on nanocarriers were investigated as potential anti-cancer agents. The GBM tumour microenvironment is a multifaceted system consisting of resident or recruited immune cells, extracellular matrix components, tissue-resident cells, and soluble factors. 
  • 698
  • 31 Jan 2024
Topic Review
miRNA Therapeutics
The discovery of the link between microRNAs (miRNAs) and a myriad of human diseases, particularly various cancer types, has generated significant interest in exploring their potential as a novel class of drugs. This has led to substantial investments in interdisciplinary research fields such as biology, chemistry, and medical science for the development of miRNA-based therapies. Furthermore, the recent global success of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines against the COVID-19 pandemic has further revitalized interest in RNA-based immunotherapies, including miRNA-based approaches to cancer treatment. Consequently, RNA therapeutics have emerged as highly adaptable and modular options for cancer therapy.
  • 138
  • 30 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Modulators of Mitochondrial Biology Derived from Marine Resources
Mitochondria are double-membrane organelles within eukaryotic cells that act as cellular power houses owing to their ability to efficiently generate the ATP required to sustain normal cell function. Also, they represent a “hub” for the regulation of a plethora of processes, including cellular homeostasis, metabolism, the defense against oxidative stress, and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are associated with a wide range of human diseases with complex pathologies, including metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Therefore, regulating dysfunctional mitochondria represents a pivotal therapeutic opportunity in biomedicine. Marine ecosystems are biologically very diversified and harbor a broad range of organisms, providing both novel bioactive substances and molecules with meaningful biomedical and pharmacological applications. Many mitochondria-targeting marine-derived molecules have been described to regulate mitochondrial biology, thus exerting therapeutic effects by inhibiting mitochondrial abnormalities, both in vitro and in vivo, through different mechanisms of action.
  • 153
  • 17 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Detrimental Effects of Reactive Oxidative Stress
Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the balance between oxidant production and antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species or a decrease in antioxidants in the body. This imbalance leads to detrimental effects, including inflammation and multiple chronic diseases, ranging from impaired wound healing to highly impacting pathologies in the neural and cardiovascular systems, or the bone, amongst others. 
  • 174
  • 10 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Dorzagliatin in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Achieving glycemic control and sustaining functional pancreatic β-cell activity remains an unmet medical need in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Glucokinase activators (GKAs) constitute a class of anti-diabetic drugs designed to regulate blood sugar levels and enhance β-cell function in patients with diabetes. A significant progression in GKA development is underway to address the limitations of earlier generations. Dorzagliatin, a dual-acting GKA, targets both the liver and pancreas and has successfully completed two phase III trials, demonstrating favorable results in diabetes treatment. 
  • 250
  • 09 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Nanoparticle Features That Impact Liver-Targeting and Tolerogenic Effects
Liver-targeting nanoparticles have emerged as a promising platform for the induction of immune tolerance by taking advantage of the liver’s unique tolerogenic properties and nanoparticles’ physicochemical flexibility. Such an approach provides a versatile solution to the treatment of a diversity of immunologic diseases.
  • 257
  • 05 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Nucleobase-Bearing Amino Acid Systems and Self-Assembly
Nucleobase-containing molecules are compounds essential in biology due to the fundamental role of nucleic acids and, in particular, G-quadruplex DNA and RNA in life. Moreover, some molecules different from nucleic acids isolated from different vegetal sources or microorganisms show nucleobase moieties in their structure. Nucleoamino acids and peptidyl nucleosides belong to this molecular class. Closely related to the above, nucleopeptides, also known as nucleobase-bearing peptides, are chimeric derivatives of synthetic origin and more rarely isolated from plants.
  • 226
  • 03 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Computer-Aided Drug Design and Drug Discovery
In the dynamic landscape of drug discovery, Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) emerges as a transformative force, bridging the realms of biology and technology. The core principle underpinning CADD are the utilization of computer algorithms on chemical and biological data to simulate and predict how a drug molecule will interact with its target—usually a protein or DNA sequence in the biological system.
  • 433
  • 29 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Skin Health and Microbiome-Targeted Strategies
The skin microbiome is a complex and dynamic ecology that resides in the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. Prebiotics are non-digestible fibers and compounds found in certain foods that promote the activity and growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut or skin. On the other hand, live microorganisms, known as probiotics, benefit in sustaining healthy conditions when consumed in reasonable quantities.
  • 223
  • 19 Dec 2023
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