Topic Review
Trace Cache
Trace Cache (also known as execution trace cache) is a very specialized cache which stores the dynamic stream of instructions known as trace. It helps in increasing the instruction fetch bandwidth and decreasing power consumption (in the case of Intel Pentium 4) by storing traces of instructions that have already been fetched and decoded. Trace Processor is an architecture designed around the Trace Cache and processes the instructions at trace level granularity.
  • 11
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
LINPACK Benchmarks
The LINPACK Benchmarks are a measure of a system's floating-point computing power. Introduced by Jack Dongarra, they measure how fast a computer solves a dense n by n system of linear equations Ax = b, which is a common task in engineering. The latest version of these benchmarks is used to build the TOP500 list, ranking the world's most powerful supercomputers. The aim is to approximate how fast a computer will perform when solving real problems. It is a simplification, since no single computational task can reflect the overall performance of a computer system. Nevertheless, the LINPACK benchmark performance can provide a good correction over the peak performance provided by the manufacturer. The peak performance is the maximal theoretical performance a computer can achieve, calculated as the machine's frequency, in cycles per second, times the number of operations per cycle it can perform. The actual performance will always be lower than the peak performance. The performance of a computer is a complex issue that depends on many interconnected variables. The performance measured by the LINPACK benchmark consists of the number of 64-bit floating-point operations, generally additions and multiplications, a computer can perform per second, also known as FLOPS. However, a computer's performance when running actual applications is likely to be far behind the maximal performance it achieves running the appropriate LINPACK benchmark. The name of these benchmarks comes from the LINPACK package, a collection of algebra Fortran subroutines widely used in the 1980s, and initially tightly linked to the LINPACK benchmark. The LINPACK package has since been replaced by other libraries.
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
BMDFM
Binary Modular Dataflow Machine (BMDFM) is software that enables running an application in parallel on shared memory symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) computers using the multiple processors to speed up the execution of single applications. BMDFM automatically identifies and exploits parallelism due to the static and mainly dynamic scheduling of the dataflow instruction sequences derived from the formerly sequential program. BMDFM dynamic scheduling subsystem performs a symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) emulation of a tagged-token dataflow machine to provide the transparent dataflow semantics for the applications. No directives for parallel execution are needed.
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Envy-Free Cake-Cutting
An envy-free cake-cutting is a kind of fair cake-cutting. It is a division of a heterogeneous resource ("cake") that satisfies the envy-free criterion, namely, that every partner feels that their allocated share is at least as good as any other share, according to their own subjective valuation. When there are only two partners, the problem is easy and has been solved in Biblical times by the divide and choose protocol. When there are three or more partners, the problem becomes much more challenging. Two major variants of the problem have been studied: Connected pieces, e.g. if the cake is a 1-dimensional interval then each partner must receive a single sub-interval. If there are n partners, only n−1 cuts are needed. General pieces, e.g. if the cake is a 1-dimensional interval then each partner can receive a union of disjoint sub-intervals.
  • 5
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Edit Distance
In computational linguistics and computer science, edit distance is a way of quantifying how dissimilar two strings (e.g., words) are to one another by counting the minimum number of operations required to transform one string into the other. Edit distances find applications in natural language processing, where automatic spelling correction can determine candidate corrections for a misspelled word by selecting words from a dictionary that have a low distance to the word in question. In bioinformatics, it can be used to quantify the similarity of DNA sequences, which can be viewed as strings of the letters A, C, G and T. Different definitions of an edit distance use different sets of string operations. Levenshtein distance operations are the removal, insertion, or substitution of a character in the string. Being the most common metric, the term Levenshtein distance is often used interchangeably with edit distance.
  • 5
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Encyclopaedia Metallum
Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives (commonly known as Metal Archives per the URL or just MA) is a website which lists bands from various forms of heavy metal music. Encyclopaedia Metallum was described by Matt Sullivan of Nashville Scene as "the Internet's central database for all that is 'tr00' in the metal world." Terrorizer described the site as "a fully-exhaustive list of pretty much every metal band ever, with full discographies, an active forum and an interlinking members list that shows the ever-incestuous beauty of the metal scene". Nevertheless, there are exceptions for bands which fall under disputed genres not accepted by the website. Encyclopaedia Metallum attempts to provide comprehensive information on each band, such as a discography, logos, pictures, lyrics, line-ups, biography, trivia and user-submitted reviews. The site also provides a system for submitting bands to the archives. The website is free of advertisements and is run completely independently.
  • 8
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Euler–Mascheroni Constant
The Euler–Mascheroni constant (also called Euler's constant) is a mathematical constant recurring in analysis and number theory, usually denoted by the lowercase Greek letter gamma (γ). It is defined as the limiting difference between the harmonic series and the natural logarithm, denoted here by [math]\displaystyle{ \log: }[/math] Here, [math]\displaystyle{ \lfloor x\rfloor }[/math] represents the floor function. The numerical value of the Euler–Mascheroni constant, to 50 decimal places, is: 0.57721566490153286060651209008240243104215933593992... 
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Search Engine Manipulation Effect
The search engine manipulation effect (SEME) is the change in consumer preferences from manipulations of search results by search engine providers. SEME is one of the largest behavioral effects ever discovered. This includes voting preferences. A 2015 study indicated that such manipulations could shift the voting preferences of undecided voters by 20 percent or more and up to 80 percent in some demographics. The study estimated that this could change the outcome of upwards of 25 percent of national elections worldwide. On the other hand, Google denies secretly re-ranking search results to manipulate user sentiment, or tweaking ranking specially for elections or political candidates.
  • 3
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Gaussian Copula Mixture Model
A Gaussian copula mixture model (GCMM) consists of a weighted sum of a finite number of joint distributions, each of which contains a Gaussian copula. It is a generalization of the usual a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). When the marginal distributions are restricted to be Gaussian, the model reduces to a GMM. To begin, the multivariate Gaussian copula is defined by the following probability function: [math]\displaystyle{ F(u|P)=\int_{-\infty}^{\Psi^{-1}(u_{1})}...\int_{-\infty}^{\Psi^{-1}(u_{d})}\frac{1}{(2\pi)^{n/2}P^{1/2}}exp(-\frac{1}{2}v^TP^{-1}v)dv }[/math] whose density is given by where Then, with the Gaussianlization of original data on each dimension, a GCMM for the joint distribution of a random vector [math]\displaystyle{ X }[/math] can be defined as follows: [math]\displaystyle{ F(X|\pi)=\sum_{k=1}^{K}\pi_k\int_{-\infty}^{Y_{k1}}...\int_{-\infty}^{Y_{kd}}\frac{1}{(2\pi)^{n/2}P_k^{1/2}}exp(-\frac{1}{2}Y^TP_kY)dY }[/math] where Its density is given by The density above is defined conditioned on the cumulative probability values and Gaussianized random variables which are both determined by the marginal distributions. The marginal distribution on each dimension for each component can be estimated via nonparametric methods such as kernel smoothing (Bowman 1998 ).
  • 4
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
DNV GL
DNV GL is an international accredited registrar and classification society headquartered in Høvik, Norway . The company currently has about 14,500 employees and 350 offices operating in more than 100 countries, and provides services for several industries including maritime, renewable energy, oil & gas, electrification, food & beverage and healthcare. It was created in 2013 as a result of a merger between two leading organizations in the field — Det Norske Veritas (Norway ) and Germanischer Lloyd (Germany ). DNV GL is the world's largest classification society, providing services for 13,175 vessels and mobile offshore units (MOUs) amounting to 265.4 million gt, which represents a global market share of 21%. It is also the largest technical consultancy and supervisory to the global renewable energy (particularly wind, wave, tidal and solar) and oil and gas industry — 65% of the world's offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV GL's technical standards. Prior to the merger, both DNV and GL have independently acquired several companies in different sectors, such as Hélimax Energy (Canada), Garrad Hassan (UK), Windtest (Germany) and KEMA (Netherlands), which now contribute to DNV GL's expertise across several industries. In addition to providing services such as technical assessment, certification, risk management and software development, DNV GL also invests heavily in research. Remi Eriksen took over as Group President and CEO of DNV GL on August 1, 2015, succeeding Henrik O. Madsen.
  • 3
  • 02 Dec 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 231
Top
Feedback