Topic Review
Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics
The Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. The school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri (1559–1632). In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently discovered a number of important mathematical concepts. Their most important results—series expansion for trigonometric functions—were described in Sanskrit verse in a book by Neelakanta called Tantrasangraha, and again in a commentary on this work, called Tantrasangraha-vakhya, of unknown authorship. The theorems were stated without proof, but proofs for the series for sine, cosine, and inverse tangent were provided a century later in the work Yuktibhasa (c. 1500 – c. 1610), written in Malayalam, by Jyesthadeva, and also in a commentary on Tantrasangraha. Their work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series). However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala.
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  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Rudolf Carnap
Rudolf Carnap (/ˈkɑːrnæp/; German: [ˈkaʁnaːp]; 18 May 1891 – 14 September 1970) was a German-language philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major member of the Vienna Circle and an advocate of logical positivism. He is considered "one of the giants among twentieth-century philosophers."
  • 5
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
AMD Radeon Software Crimson
AMD Radeon Software (formerly named ATI Catalyst and AMD Catalyst) is a device driver and utility software package for Advanced Micro Devices's graphics cards and APUs. It runs on Microsoft Windows and Linux, on 32- and 64-bit x86 processors.
  • 4
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
DSMod
As the next version of Windows NT after Windows 2000, as well as the successor to Windows Me, Windows XP introduced many new features but it also removed some others.
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  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Geologic Modelling
Geologic modelling, geological modelling or geomodelling is the applied science of creating computerized representations of portions of the Earth's crust based on geophysical and geological observations made on and below the Earth surface. A geomodel is the numerical equivalent of a three-dimensional geological map complemented by a description of physical quantities in the domain of interest. Geomodelling is related to the concept of Shared Earth Model; which is a multidisciplinary, interoperable and updatable knowledge base about the subsurface. Geomodelling is commonly used for managing natural resources, identifying natural hazards, and quantifying geological processes, with main applications to oil and gas fields, groundwater aquifers and ore deposits. For example, in the oil and gas industry, realistic geologic models are required as input to reservoir simulator programs, which predict the behavior of the rocks under various hydrocarbon recovery scenarios. A reservoir can only be developed and produced once; therefore, making a mistake by selecting a site with poor conditions for development is tragic and wasteful. Using geological models and reservoir simulation allows reservoir engineers to identify which recovery options offer the safest and most economic, efficient, and effective development plan for a particular reservoir. Geologic modelling is a relatively recent subdiscipline of geology which integrates structural geology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis; In 2-dimensions (2D), a geologic formation or unit is represented by a polygon, which can be bounded by faults, unconformities or by its lateral extent, or crop. In geological models a geological unit is bounded by 3-dimensional (3D) triangulated or gridded surfaces. The equivalent to the mapped polygon is the fully enclosed geological unit, using a triangulated mesh. For the purpose of property or fluid modelling these volumes can be separated further into an array of cells, often referred to as voxels (volumetric elements). These 3D grids are the equivalent to 2D grids used to express properties of single surfaces. Geomodelling generally involves the following steps:
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  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Clustal
Clustal is a series of widely used computer programs used in bioinformatics for multiple sequence alignment. There have been many versions of Clustal over the development of the algorithm that are listed below. The analysis of each tool and its algorithm are also detailed in their respective categories. Available operating systems listed in the sidebar are a combination of the software availability and may not be supported for every current version of the Clustal tools. Clustal Omega has the widest variety of operating systems out of all the Clustal tools.
  • 7
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Touhou Hisōtensoku
Touhou Hisōtensoku ~ Chōdokyū Ginyoru no Nazo wo Oe (東方非想天則 ~ 超弩級ギニョルの謎を追え, lit. "Lacking Perception of the Rule of Heaven in the East: Chase the Enigma of the Superdreadnought Guignol") is a versus fighting game in the Touhou Project game series. The game, by Twilight Frontier and Team Shanghai Alice, can be played as a standalone game or as an expansion pack for the previous fighting game Scarlet Weather Rhapsody. In the Touhou Project overall, it is labeled as the 12.3rd Touhou game.
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  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Domain Fronting
Domain fronting is a technique for Internet censorship circumvention that uses different domain names in different communication layers of an HTTPS connection to discreetly connect to a different target domain than is discernable to third parties monitoring the requests and connections. Due to quirks in security certificates, the redirect systems of the content delivery networks (CDNs) used as 'domain fronts', and the protection provided by HTTPS, censors are typically unable to differentiate circumvention ("domain-fronted") traffic from overt non-fronted traffic for any given domain name. As such they are forced to either allow all traffic to the domain front—including circumvention traffic—or block the domain front entirely, which may result in expensive collateral damage and has been likened to "blocking the rest of the Internet".[note 1] Domain fronting does not conform to HTTP standards that require the SNI extension and HTTP Host header to contain the same domain. Large cloud service providers, including Amazon and Google, now actively prohibit domain fronting, which has made it "largely non-viable"[note 1] as a censorship bypass technique.
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  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Vancouver Web Series Festival
The Vancouver Web Series Festival, also known as the Vancouver Web Fest, is a web series festival based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada . It is known as the first ever Canadian festival dedicated solely to entertainment and programming created exclusively for the Internet. In 2017, IndieWire called the festival "one of the leading destinations for quality web content". Raindance dubbed it one of the "must attend" web series events for creators and fans of online content. The Province described the festival as "the future of broadcast."
  • 3
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
High-level Architecture
The high-level architecture (HLA) is a general purpose architecture for distributed computer simulation systems. Using HLA, computer simulations can interact (that is, to communicate data, and to synchronize actions) with other computer simulations regardless of the computing platforms. The interaction between simulations is managed by a run-time infrastructure (RTI). HLA is an interoperability standard for distributed simulation used to support analysis, engineering and training in a number of different domains in both military and civilian applications and is the standard technical architecture for all US Department of Defense simulations.
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  • 04 Oct 2022
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