Topic Review
Z4 (Computer)
The Z4 was arguably the world's first commercial digital computer. It was designed, and manufactured by early computer scientist Konrad Zuse's company Zuse Apparatebau, for an order placed by Henschel & Son, in 1942; though only partially assembled in Berlin, then completed in Göttingen, and not delivered by the defeat of Nazi Germany, in 1945. The Z4 was Zuse's final target for the Z3 design. Like the earlier Z2, it comprised a combination of mechanical memory and electromechanical logic, so was not a true electronic computer.
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  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Yuktibhāṣā (Malayalam: യുക്തിഭാഷ, lit. 'Rationale'), also known as Gaṇita-yukti-bhāṣā:xxi and Gaṇitanyāyasaṅgraha (Compendium of Astronomical Rationale), is a major treatise on mathematics and astronomy, written by the India n astronomer Jyesthadeva of the Kerala school of mathematics around 1530. The treatise, written in Malayalam, is a consolidation of the discoveries by Madhava of Sangamagrama, Nilakantha Somayaji, Parameshvara, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, and other astronomer-mathematicians of the Kerala school. It also exists in a Sanskrit version, with unclear author and date, composed as a rough translation of the Malayalam original. The work contains proofs and derivations of the theorems that it presents. Modern historians used to assert, based on the works of Indian mathematics that first became available, that early Indian scholars in astronomy and computation lacked in proofs, but Yuktibhāṣā demonstrates otherwise. Some of its important topics include the infinite series expansions of functions; power series, including of π and π/4; trigonometric series of sine, cosine, and arctangent; Taylor series, including second and third order approximations of sine and cosine; radii, diameters and circumferences; and tests of convergence. Yuktibhāṣā mainly gives rationale for the results in Nilakantha's Tantra Samgraha. It is considered an early text on the ideas of calculus, predating Newton and Leibniz by centuries. The treatise was largely unnoticed outside India, as it was written in the local language of Malayalam. In modern times, due to wider international cooperation in mathematics, the wider world has taken notice of the work. For example, both Oxford University and the Royal Society of Great Britain have given attribution to pioneering mathematical theorems of Indian origin that predate their Western counterparts.
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  • 21 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Attention Mechanism-Based Lightweight YOLOv5 for Track Pedestrian Detection. In response to the dangerous behavior of pedestrians roaming freely on unsupervised train tracks, the real-time detection of pedestrians is urgently required to ensure the safety of trains and people. Aiming to improve the low accuracy of railway pedestrian detection, the high missed-detection rate of target pedestrians, and the poor retention of non-redundant boxes, YOLOv5 is adopted as the baseline to improve the effectiveness of pedestrian detection by model pruning, improving attention mechanism, etc.
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  • 15 Sep 2022
Topic Review
YOLO-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology
YOLO-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology is proposed in the context of interdisciplinary or multi-disciplinary collaborative research, by the cross-fertilization of You Only Look Once (YOLO) target detection algorithms and UAV technology. In this YOLO-based UAV technology, the UAV can provide more application scenarios for the YOLO algorithm, while the YOLO algorithm can assist the UAV with more novel tasks. The two can complement each other to further facilitate people's daily lives while contributing to the productivity of their respective industries.
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  • 06 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Yarovaya Law
The Yarovaya law (in Russian: Закон Яровой, transliteration: Zakon Jarovoy), also Yarovaya package/bag, is a set of two Russia n federal bills, 374-FZ and 375-FZ, passed in 2016. The bills amend previous counter-terrorism law and separate laws regulating additional counter-terror and public safety measures. It is known to the public under the last name of one of its creators—Irina Yarovaya. The amendments included an expansion of authority for law enforcement agencies, new requirements for data collection and mandatory decoding in the telecommunications industry, as well as the increased regulation of evangelism, including a ban on the performance of "missionary activities" in non-religious settings.
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  • 12 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Yao's Millionaires' Problem
Yao's Millionaires' problem is a secure multi-party computation problem which was introduced in 1982 by computer scientist and computational theorist Andrew Yao. The problem discusses two millionaires, Alice and Bob, who are interested in knowing which of them is richer without revealing their actual wealth. This problem is analogous to a more general problem where there are two numbers [math]\displaystyle{ a }[/math] and [math]\displaystyle{ b }[/math] and the goal is to determine whether the inequality [math]\displaystyle{ a \geq b }[/math] is true or false without revealing the actual values of [math]\displaystyle{ a }[/math] and [math]\displaystyle{ b }[/math]. The Millionaires' Problem is an important problem in cryptography, the solution of which is used in e-commerce and data mining. Commercial applications sometimes have to compare numbers which are confidential and whose security is important. Many solutions have been introduced for the problem, among which the first solution, presented by Yao himself, was exponential in time and space.
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  • 15 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Yan Tan Tethera
Yan Tan Tethera is a sheep-counting rhyme/system traditionally used by shepherds in Northern England and earlier in some other parts of Britain. Until the Industrial Revolution, the use of traditional number systems was common among shepherds, especially in the fells of the Lake District. The Yan Tan Tethera system was also used for counting stitches in knitting. The words derive from a Brythonic Celtic language. Though most of these number systems fell out of use by 1910, some are still in use. The word yan or yen for "one" in some northern English dialects generally represents a regular development in Northern English in which the Old English long vowel /ɑː/ was broken into /ie/, /ia/ and so on. This explains the shift to yan and ane from the Old English ān, which is itself derived from the Proto-Germanic *ainaz. Another example of this development is the Northern English word for "home", hame, which has forms such as hyem, yem and yam all deriving from the Old English hām.
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  • 20 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Yakuza Kenzan
Ryū ga Gotoku Kenzan! (Japanese: 龍が如く 見参!, "Like a Dragon Arrives!"), unofficially known as Yakuza Kenzan, is a jidaigeki-themed spin-off game in the Yakuza series. The game was developed and published by Sega for PlayStation 3. It was unveiled at the Tokyo Game Show 2007 and released in 2008. A second Yakuza series spin-off set in samurai era, Ryū ga Gotoku Ishin!, was released in 2014 on both the PlayStation 3 and the PlayStation 4 systems. Ishin! is set two centuries later than Kenzan!, hence the plots are not related to each other since both games focus on different characters, the historical figures of Sakamoto Ryōma (1836-1867) and Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645) respectively.
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  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Yahoo! Messenger Protocol
The Yahoo! Messenger Protocol (YMSG) is the underlying network protocol used by the Yahoo! Messenger instant messaging client. Yahoo! Instant Messager supports many features beyond just messaging, including off-line messaging, file transfer, chat, conferencing, voice chat, webcams and avatars.
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  • 07 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Yahoo Sports
Yahoo Sports is a sports news website launched by Yahoo! on December 8, 1997. It receives a majority of its information from STATS, Inc. It employs numerous writers, and has team pages for teams in almost every North American major sport. Before the launch of Yahoo Sports, certain elements of the site were known as Yahoo! Scoreboard. From 2011 to 2016, the Yahoo Sports brand had also been used for a U.S. sports radio network. That network is now known as SportsMap.
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