Topic Review
ML-Based Detection Approaches of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis
Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in detecting coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) in their chest X-rays. Early diagnosis of the CWP can significantly improve workers’ survival rate.  The feature extraction and detection approaches of computer-based analysis in CWP using chest X-ray radiographs (CXR) can be summarised into three categories: classical methods including computer and international labor organization (ILO) classification-based detection; traditional machine learning methods; and CNN methods.
  • 607
  • 10 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Cyber Warriors Conclave
In today's digital age, cybersecurity is a crucial skill for everyone. Cybersecurity refers to the practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks. These attacks aim to access, change, or destroy sensitive information, extort money from users, or interrupt normal business processes. Everyday citizens need to understand the basics of cybersecurity to protect themselves from these threats.
  • 54
  • 03 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Future Healthcare with Ambient Intelligence and IoMT
Imagine technology that is perceptive, adaptable, and perfectly in tune with human needs. This is the promise of Ambient Intelligence (AMI), a groundbreaking advancement in IT with transformative potential across various domains, especially healthcare. By merging the power of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), AMI creates a dynamic and responsive medical environment. The survey dives deep into the integration of AMI techniques in IoMT, providing essential insights for both researchers and practitioners eager to innovate in the healthcare sector. 
  • 82
  • 19 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Fatal Software Failures in Spaceflight
Space exploration has become an integral part of modern society, and since its early days in the 1960s, software has grown in importance, becoming indispensable for spaceflight. However, software is boon and bane: while it enables unprecedented functionality and cost reductions and can even save spacecraft, its importance and fragility also make it a potential Achilles heel for critical systems. Throughout the history of spaceflight, numerous accidents with significant detrimental impacts on mission objectives and safety have been attributed to software, although unequivocal attribution is sometimes difficult. In this Entry, we examine over two dozen software-related mishaps in spaceflight from a software engineering perspective, focusing on major incidents and not claiming completeness. This Entry article contextualizes the role of software in space exploration and aims to preserve the lessons learned from these mishaps. Such knowledge is crucial for ensuring future success in space endeavors. Finally, we explore prospects for the increasingly software-dependent future of spaceflight.
  • 601
  • 13 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Quantum AI Integration for Industry Transformation
The fusion of quantum computing and artificial intelligence (AI) heralds a transformative era for Industry 4.0, offering unprecedented capabilities and challenges
  • 818
  • 11 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Disaster Management Systems
Disaster management is a critical area that requires efficient methods and techniques to address various challenges. An increasing number of studies have elaborated on the importance and applications of remote sensing in disaster management. A major reason for the adoption of remote sensing is that it is one of the fastest means of acquiring data for pre-disaster and post-disaster studies. It is used to provide data for damage assessment in a timely manner and to assist in evaluation and rehabilitation plans. During the pre-disaster phase, remote sensing can be applied to identify and develop adequate systems and resources before the occurrence of a disaster. Adequate systems and resources can ensure that the response to a disaster is coordinated and efficient and that the recovery time is minimal.
  • 457
  • 06 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Security of Programmable Logic Controllers in Industrial Control Systems
One key role in industrial control systems (ICSs) is known as Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). However, with the development of the Internet of Things (IoT), PLCs have become exposed to an increasing number of attacks, which may cause malfunctions of the whole ICS. Thus, it is necessary to identify potential attacks on PLCs and propose effective solutions to mitigate them. Unfortunately, to date, there have not been significant efforts made to provide a detailed overview of existing works on PLC security. With such a concern in mind, in this paper, we focus on summarising PLC security from different components running at different layers of a PLC architecture. We first review the framework of PLCs; then, we discuss several models when considering PLC security. After that, we provide an overview of existing attacks on PLCs and general solutions to those issues from different perspectives. Lastly, we conclude this paper with an overview of future research areas in PLC security.
  • 389
  • 05 Jun 2024
Topic Review
A Simpler Look at Mobile App Development's Future
The world of mobile applications is on the cusp of a transformative era. The arrival of 5G technology, with its mind-blowing speeds and ultra-low latency, promises to revolutionize the way we interact with our devices and experience the digital world.
  • 162
  • 29 May 2024
Topic Review
Łukaszyk-Karmowski Metric
The Łukaszyk–Karmowski metric (LK-metric) defines a distance between two random variables or vectors. LK-metric is not a metric as it does not satisfy the identity of indiscernibles axiom of the metric; for the same random variables, its value is greater than zero, providing they are not both degenerated.
  • 170
  • 20 May 2024
Topic Review
Smart Sensing Chair for Sitting Posture Monitoring
Smart sensing chairs, equipped with advanced sensor technologies such as Force Sensing Resistors (FSRs), show significant potential in mitigating the negative health impacts of incorrect sitting postures, which can lead to spinal misalignment and musculoskeletal disorders. Research emphasizes the use of sophisticated machine learning techniques, including Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), for classifying sitting postures. Notably, these advanced models do not always outperform traditional models due to the limitations of the training datasets, which often lack sufficient diversity in representing different human body types and health conditions. This finding underscores the critical need for datasets that more accurately reflect the demographic and physiological diversity of users. Additionally, this research highlights a significant opportunity for innovation in user feedback mechanisms within smart sensing chairs, suggesting that enhanced interactive features could improve posture correction efforts and overall user health outcomes.
  • 470
  • 13 May 2024
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