Topic Review
Methods of Residual Stress Measurement
This entry introduces several commonly used residual stress measurement methods.
  • 4110
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel
Hydrogen is a very important fuel of our secure and clean energy future. Hydrogen will be the fuel of the future and gradually it will replace all current fossil fuels. Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for vehicles, to heat homes and offices, to produce electricity, and to fuel ships and aircraft. The present work provides an overview of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, which can be used in internal combustion engines and in fuel cells.
  • 3522
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Parallelism Measurement Methods
At present, the parallelism error was evaluated by contact probe, laser interferometer, and  autocollimator, etc. Moreover, it can also be divided into contact method and non-contact method based on the measurement principle.
  • 2609
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Can CFD Analysis Help PEM Fuel Cell Design and Operation?
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system is an advanced power system for the future that is sustainable, clean and environmental friendly. PEM fuel cells are growing in importance as sources of sustainable energy and will doubtless form part of the changing program of energy resources in the future. PEM fuel cells are still undergoing intense development, and the combination of new and optimized materials, improved product development, novel architectures, more efficient transport processes, and design optimization and integration are expected to lead to major gains in performance, efficiency, reliability, manufacturability and cost-effectiveness. The difficult experimental environment of PEM fuel cell systems has stimulated efforts to develop models that could simulate and predict multi-dimensional coupled transport of reactants, heat and charged species using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. The strength of the CFD numerical approach is in providing detailed insight into the various transport mechanisms and their interaction, and in the possibility of performing parameters sensitivity analyses. The results of CFD analyses are relevant in: conceptual studies of new designs, detailed product development, troubleshooting, and redesign. CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation, by reduces the total effort required in the experiment design and data acquisition. Relevant case studies and recent progress in CFD techniques used in PEM fuel cell development have been presented and analyzed. The CFD models are shown to be able to provide a computer-aided tool for design and optimize future PEM fuel cell with much higher power density, long cell life, and lower cost.
  • 2553
  • 26 Apr 2020
Topic Review
Surface Cleaning Methods
It is difficult to avoid surface contaminants in the processes of integrated circuit manufacturing, optical elements processing and additive forging. The presence of surface contaminants will bring great problems to above process. For example, in large- scale integrated circuits manufacturing, the submicron contaminants on silicon wafer surface will cause defects in the chip directly [1]. And in the manufacture of optical elements, the quality of the cleaned surface will directly affect the damage resistance of optical elements [2], and the presence of surface contaminants will affect its service life [3]. Similarly, during the additive forging process, the surface contaminants will affect the interface healing state of the substrate and ultimately affect its bonding performance. However, surface contaminants can be removed effectively by a suitable surface cleaning method, so surface cleaning is of great significance to solve the above problems.
  • 2489
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
The Braking Torque
A disc brake is a braking system in which a disc that rotates in solidarity with the vehicle wheel is subjected to friction by brake pads with a high coefficient of friction. The brake pads are arranged in a part called the caliper, which is in turn fixed solidly to the structure of the car. A hydraulic circuit pushes the brake pads against the disc with sufficient force to transform all or part of the kinetic energy of the vehicle in movement, into heat, until it is stopped or its speed is reduced, as the case may be.
  • 1862
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Digital Image Correlation
Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a non-invasive imaging technique that has been used in a significant number of research fields to measure the strain fields across the surface of a body. This entry gives a basic overview of how the DIC method came to be, both in two and three dimensions and some information about the more recent development of DIC in the X-ray spectrum. 
  • 1225
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Shipbuilding Supply Chain 4.0
The supply chain is currently taking on a very important role in organizations seekingto improve the competitiveness and profitability of the company. Its transversal character mainly places it in an unbeatable position to achieve this role. This article, through a study of each of the key enabling technologies of Industry 4.0, aims to obtain a general overview of the current state of the art in shipbuilding adapted to these technologies. To do so, a systematic review of what the scientific community says is carried out, dividing each of the technologies into di erent categories. In addition, the global vision of countries interested in each of the enabling technologies is also studied. Both studies present a general vision to the companies of the concerns of the scientific community, thus encouraging research on the subject that is focused on the sustainability of theshipbuilding supply chain.
  • 1139
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Laser Forming Process
Laser forming is an emerging manufacturing process capable of producing either uncomplicated and complicated shapes by employing a concentrated heating source. The heat source movement creates local softening, and a plastic strain will be induced during the rise of temperature and the subsequent cooling. This contactless forming process may be used for the simple bending of sheets and tubes or fabrication of doubly-curved parts. Different studies have been carried out over recent years to understand the mechanism of forming and predicting the bending angle. The analysis of process parameters and search for optimized manufacturing conditions are among the most discussed topics. This review describes the main recent findings in the laser forming of single and multilayer sheets, composite and fiber-metal laminate plates, force assisted laser bending, tube bending by laser beam, the optimization technique implemented for process parameters selection and control, doubly-curved parts, and the analytical solutions in laser bending. The main focus is set to the researches published since 2015.
  • 1018
  • 21 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi
Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi is a professor of Mechanical Engineering, He works at Tongji University (Shanghai).  He has published over 330 journal papers and 50 conference papers, his citations and h-index is 14550, 69 respectively.  He is the editor of ten International Journals (ISI or Scopus indexed): Engineering Section Editor (managing 11 Associate editors) of Heliyon, (March 2019 – present). Editorial Advisory Board of International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow (ISI, IF= 45) (May 2018 – present). Editorial Board Member of Neural Computing and Applications (ISI, IF= 4.213) (July 2017 – Nov 2018). Associate Editor of Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ISI, IF= 209) (Jan 2018 – present). Editorial Board of PLOS ONE (ISI, IF= 2.766) (Jan 2018 – present). Editorial Board of Heliyon (Elsevier) (March 2018 – present). Editorial Board Member of Tribology in Industry (ISI, IF= 1.32) (Sep 2017 – present). Honorary Editorial Advisory Board of Journal of Thermal Engineering (SCOPUS) (Sep 2014 – present). Editorial Board Member of Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology (ISI, IF= 0.312) (Sep 2015 – present). Deputy Section Editor of the Journal of Engineering (Web of Science), (Nov 2017 – Dec 2021).
  • 926
  • 24 Sep 2020
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