Topic Review
Cost–Benefit Analysis for Road Infrastructure Projects
Abstract Cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is considered an effective evaluation method for fostering optimal decision-making and ranking of road infrastructures over decades. This paper introduces a comprehensive systematic literature review focusing on CBA’s methodological perspective for identifying its current modelling approaches and scrutinizing their key features and encompassed tools. Fifty-six relevant studies were extracted from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar from 2005 until 2020. Initially, the bibliometric analysis presents an overall illustration of the most significant CBA concepts. The descriptive statistics determined eight distinct modelling categories used for CBA implementation, each encompassing three different modelling approaches for capturing the data risk assessment (deterministic or probabilistic), CBA’s parameters interactive behavior (static or dynamic) and the considered economies (microeconomic or macroeconomic). In-depth content analysis led to the interpretation of the current status of extant models and the identification of three main knowledge gaps: the absence of the CBA’s inputs updating into a probabilistic environment, the deficiency of a dynamic interdependent framework and the necessity of homogenous cost datasets for road projects. Future research directions and a conceptual framework for modelling CBA into a microeconomic, probabilistic and dynamic environment are proposed providing decision-makers with new avenues for more reliable CBA modelling.
  • 14
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Energy Storage in Rail Transportation
With the development of the global economy and the increase in environmental awareness, energy technology in transportation, especially the application of energy storage technology in rail transportation, has become a key area of research. Rail transportation systems are characterized by high energy consumption and poor power quality due to the more flexible regulation capability of energy storage technology in these aspects. 
  • 30
  • 28 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Trend towards Helmet Usage
It has been observed that cyclists wearing helmets may follow zigzag patterns while wearing helmets, which may cause accidents. Moreover, it has been observed that cyclists wearing helmets may be more responsible regarding traffic rules. These problems should be considered in creating effective traffic safety campaigns and policy making.
  • 82
  • 05 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Geo-Design in Planning for Bicycling
Cities have increasingly promoted bicycling as a mode of transport as part of their strategy to develop a more sustainable transportation system. Australia is one of the countries that seeks to promote bicycling in a significant manner. There are two primary barriers faced in this effort. The first is the organizational complexity of planning and of implementing cycling-related projects, which can span across different agencies in government at various levels, from federal to local. Second is the lack of a clear framework for effectively planning a bicycling network using multiple data and tools available to these agencies within a limited budget. The use of a geo-design-based, collaborative, and data-driven framework for planning bicycling networks brings various stakeholders, such as transport planners, urban designers, and academics, into the planning practice, thus overcoming the mentioned barriers. Geo-design is an environmental design framework for complex problems involving the collaboration of different teams and stakeholders, supported by digital computing and communication technologies.
  • 40
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Blockchain Overview
Blockchain technology integrates a hash algorithm, digital signature, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanism, and other existing technologies, so it is characterized by anti-fraud, traceability, security, and trust. Supply chain refers to the network chain structure formed by upstream and downstream enterprises involved in the activities of providing products or services to end users in the process of production and circulation. 
  • 50
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Chrysler Minivan (AS)
The second-generation Chrysler minivans are a series of minivans that were manufactured and marketed by Chrysler Corporation in North America and Europe from 1991 to 1995. Officially designated the AS platform by Chrysler, the second-generation minivans were again sold in passenger and cargo configurations by the Chrysler, Plymouth, and Dodge divisions. Launched in late 1990 for the 1991 model year, the second-generation minivans were an extensive revision of the first-generation chassis and body. The model range became the first minivans offered with driver-side airbags (1991) and with optional integrated child safety seats (1992). While adding all-wheel drive as an option for the first time, the AS platform would also mark the last offering of a manual transmission. As with its predecessor, Chrysler assembled second-generation minivans at Windsor Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, with additional production at Saint Louis (North) Assembly in Fenton, Missouri from 1990 to 1994. In 1992, to supplement exports from the United States, the Chrysler Voyager began production in Graz, Austria (in the Eurostar joint venture factory between Chrysler and Steyr-Daimler-Puch). For the 1996 model year, the AS-generation minivans were replaced by the NS platform, marking the first complete redesign of the Chrysler minivans since their introduction.
  • 54
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Brass Era Car
The Brass Era is an American term for the early period of automotive manufacturing, named for the prominent brass fittings used during this time for such things as lights and radiators. It is generally considered to encompass 1896 through 1915, a time when these vehicles were often referred to as horseless carriages. Elsewhere in the world this period would be considered by antique car enthusiasts to consist of the veteran (pre-1904), and Edwardian eras, although these terms are really not meaningful outside the former British Empire.
  • 69
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Application of RAP in Asphalt Concrete Pavements
The use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) materials in asphalt concrete pavements (ACP) brings significant cost and environmental benefits. In practice, however, the amount of RAP readily available far exceeds the amount being utilized in ACPs, which still leaves the problem of excess RAP in the environment partially solved. Additionally, ACPs containing RAP materials (i.e., RAP-ACPs) can still be landfilled after they have reached the end of their useful life, which may restore the original environmental waste problem. To address these, researchers have demonstrated different ways to maximize the application of RAP in ACPs. Among them, the use of RAP in pavement preventive maintenance (PPM) treatments and the repeated recycling of RAP-ACPs (i.e., RnAP) are specifically discussed herein. It is envisaged that, by promoting these two practices, the application and benefits of RAP can be further maximized to improve sustainability. 
  • 170
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Traffic Incident Detection Algorithms
Traffic incidents have negative impacts on traffic flow and the gross domestic product of most countries. In addition, they may result in fatalities and injuries. Thus, efficient incident detection systems have a vital role in restoring normal traffic conditions on the roads and saving lives and properties. Researchers have realized the importance of Automatic Incident Detection (AID) systems and conducted several studies to develop AID systems to quickly detect traffic incidents with an acceptable performance level. AID can be categorized into four categories: comparative, statistical, artificial intelligence-based and video–image processing algorithms.
  • 72
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Forth Bridge Approach Railways
The Forth Bridge approach railways were railway lines constructed in the period 1887 to 1890 to form new main lines on the opening of the Forth Railway Bridge. The Forth Bridge opened in 1890 at the Queensferry crossing, and only local branch lines approached the location. The North British Railway built new main lines and upgraded some existing lines. The increase in passenger traffic resulted in serious congestion at Edinburgh Waverley, which was extended and modernised in the years following 1890.
  • 34
  • 21 Nov 2022
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