Topic Review
Smart Grid
Traditional power grid models are based on a central system for generating and distributing energy and have undergone significant changes in recent years. The integration of the latest generation of technologies, rare in critical infrastructure such as the Internet of Things (IoT), has facilitated the evolution to a more dynamic and connected power grid model now known as the Smart Grid (SG). SG’s contributions result from introducing a mutual flow of information between manufacturers and customers, from which both can benefit. This flow enables fine-grained consumption measurements reported to each energy service provider in near real-time to provide consumers with up-to-date price data or control a utility that contains the grid’s energy load in real-time according to actual demand, allowing utilities to perform accurate demand response procedures by anticipating high demand peaks, avoiding and mitigating power outages, and distributing the load on available generators. On the other hand, consumers can take part in programs that reduce electricity consumption in the event of rising energy prices while using home-generated (renewable) electricity (such as the so-called microgrid).
  • 463
  • 17 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Electric Vehicles for Vehicle-to-Grid Services
With every passing second, we witness the effect of the global environmental impact of fossil fuels and carbon emissions, to which nations across the globe respond by coming up with ambitious goals to become carbon-free and energy-efficient. At the same time, electric vehicles (EVs) are developed as a possible solution to reach this ambitious goal of making a cleaner environment and facilitating smarter transportation modes. This excellent idea of shifting towards an entirely EV-based mobility industry and economy results in a range of issues that need to be addressed. The issues range from ramping up the electricity generation for the projected increase in consumption to developing an infrastructure that is large enough to support the higher demand for electricity that arises due to the market penetration of EVs. Vehicle to grid (V2G) is a concept that is largely in a testing phase in the current scenario. However, it appears to offer a solution to the issues created by a mobility sector that the constantly growing EV fleet will dominate. Furthermore, the integration of EVs with the grid seems to offer various cost-wise and environment-wise benefits while assisting the grid by tapping into the idle energy of parked EVs during peak hours
  • 888
  • 17 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Hydrogen Production in Arctic Region
The development of markets for low-carbon energy sources requires reconsideration of issues related to extraction and use of oil and gas. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are concentrated in Arctic territories, e.g., 30% of the world’s undiscovered natural gas reserves and 13% of oil. Associated petroleum gas, natural gas and gas condensate could be able to expand the scope of their applications. Natural gas is the main raw material for the production of hydrogen and ammonia, which are considered promising primary energy resources of the future, the oxidation of which does not release CO2. Complex components contained in associated petroleum gas and gas condensate are valuable chemical raw materials to be used in a wide range of applications.
  • 1.5K
  • 17 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Personalized Wearable Biomedical Devices
Wearable devices have emerged as promising tools for personalized health monitoring, utilizing machine learning to distill meaningful insights from the expansive datasets they capture. Within the bio-electrical category, these devices employ biosignal data, such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), electromyograms (EMGs), electroencephalograms (EEGs), etc., to monitor and assess health. 
  • 24
  • 16 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Basics of High-Entropy Materials
High-entropy materials (HEMs) constitute a revolutionary class of materials that have garnered significant attention in the field of materials science, exhibiting extraordinary properties in the realm of energy storage. These equimolar multielemental compounds have demonstrated increased charge capacities, enhanced ionic conductivities, and a prolonged cycle life, attributed to their structural stability. In the anode, transitioning from the traditional graphite (372 mAh g−1) to an HEM anode can increase capacity and enhance cycling stability. For cathodes, lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) can be replaced with new cathodes made from HEMs, leading to greater energy storage. HEMs play a significant role in electrolytes, where they can be utilized as solid electrolytes, such as in ceramics and polymers, or as new high-entropy liquid electrolytes, resulting in longer cycling life, higher ionic conductivities, and stability over wide temperature ranges. The incorporation of HEMs in metal–air batteries offers methods to mitigate the formation of unwanted byproducts, such as Zn(OH)4 and Li2CO3, when used with atmospheric air, resulting in improved cycling life and electrochemical stability.
  • 46
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Modularisation in Construction and Precast Building Systems
Modular precast construction is a methodological approach to reduce environmental impacts and increase productivity when building with concrete. Constructions are segmented into similar precast concrete elements, prefabricated with integrated quality control, and assembled just-in-sequence on site. Due to the automatised prefabrication, inaccuracies are minimised and the use of high-performance materials is enabled. 
  • 32
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Hybrid Convolutional Neural Network–Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory
Recognition of lying is a more complex cognitive process than truth-telling because of the presence of involuntary cognitive cues that are useful to lie recognition. Researchers have proposed different approaches in the literature to solve the problem of lie recognition from either handcrafted and/or automatic lie features during court trials and police interrogations.
  • 249
  • 09 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Particle Swarm Optimisation in Internet of Things
The internet of things, a collection of diversified distributed nodes, implies a varying choice of activities ranging from sleep monitoring and tracking of activities, to more complex activities such as data analytics and management. With an increase in scale comes even greater complexities, leading to significant challenges such as excess energy dissipation, which can lead to a decrease in IoT devices’ lifespan. Internet of things’ (IoT) multiple variable activities and ample data management greatly influence devices’ lifespan, making resource optimisation a necessity. Existing methods with respect to aspects of resource management and optimisation are limited in their concern of devices energy dissipation.
  • 58
  • 07 Apr 2024
Topic Review
New Power System Stability
Power system instability causes many local or large-scale power outage accidents. To maintain sustainable development, a new power system construction aimed at maximizing new energy consumption is being put on the agenda.
  • 128
  • 04 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Crowdsourcing Update Methods for High-Definition Maps
High-definition (HD) maps serve as crucial infrastructure for autonomous driving technology, facilitating vehicles in positioning, environmental perception, and motion planning without being affected by weather changes or sensor-visibility limitations.
  • 61
  • 01 Apr 2024
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