Topic Review
Clostridioides difficile Infection in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Patients
Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) represents a major health burden with substantial economic and clinical impact. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) were identified as a risk category for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In addition to traditional risk factors for C. difficile acquisition, IBD-specific risk factors such as immunosuppression, severity and extension of the inflammatory disease were identified. C. difficile virulence factors, represented by both toxins A and B, induce the damage of the intestinal mucosa and vascular changes, and promote the inflammatory host response. Given the potential life-threatening complications, early diagnostic and therapeutic interventions are required. The screening for CDI is recommended in IBD exacerbations, and the diagnostic algorithm consists of clinical evaluation, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). An increased length of hospitalization, increased colectomy rate and mortality are the consequences of concurrent CDI in IBD patients. Selection of CD strains of higher virulence, antibiotic resistance, and the increasing rate of recurrent infections make the management of CDI in IBD more challenging.
  • 125
  • 08 Aug 2022
Topic Review
H. pylori Marker Detection
The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes c.a. 50% of human stomachs worldwide and is the major risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. Its high genetic variability makes it difficult to identify biomarkers of early stages of infection that can reliably predict its outcome. 
  • 115
  • 01 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Acacia Catechu Willd. for CRC
The research for innovative treatments against colon adenocarcinomas is still a great challenge. Acacia catechu Willd. heartwood extract (AC) has health-promoting qualities, especially at gastrointestinal level. This study characterized AC for its catechins content and investigates the apoptotic-enhancing effect in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, along with its ability to spare healthy tissue. Results showed that AC  induced an increase in apoptotic cells and ROS formation, reduction in mitochondria membrane potential as well as increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity. AC did not affect rat ileum and colon rings viability and functionality, suggesting its safe profile toward healthy tissue. The present findings outline the potential of AC for colon cancer treatment.
  • 440
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Achalasia
Achalasia is an esophageal motor disease characterized by the lack of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and aperistalsis. The first time this condition was described was in 1672 by Sir Thomas Willis, but the "achalasia" term was only created in 1929 by Hurst and Rake, meaning "no relaxation".
  • 288
  • 31 May 2021
Topic Review
Acute Coronary Syndromes and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induces a process of systemic inflammation, sharing common ground with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Growing evidence points towards a possible association between IBD and an increased risk of ACS.
  • 163
  • 15 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Acute Liver Injury and COVID-19
COVID-19 patients with severe illness are likely to present with atypical liver biochemistry tests. A number of systematic and meta-analysis studies have examined pooled odds ratios of hepatocellular and hepatobiliary enzymes to differentiate between severe and non-severe COVID-19 illness. In a meta-analysis of 8 studies involving 7467 COVID-19 patients by Xin et al. individuals had pooled odds ratio of 3.21, 2.35 and 1.87 for elevated AST, ALT and total bilirubin levels respectively in severe illness.
  • 194
  • 23 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Acute Pancreatitis
The incidence of acute and chronic pancreatitis is increasing in the United States. Rates of acute pancreatitis (AP) are similar in both sexes, but chronic pancreatitis (CP) is more common in males. When stratified by etiology, women have higher rates of gallstone AP, while men have higher rates of alcohol- and tobacco-related AP and CP, hypercalcemic AP, hypertriglyceridemic AP, malignancy-related AP, and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). 
  • 217
  • 27 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Adipokines in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the major cause of chronic hepatic illness and the leading indication for liver transplantation in the future decades. NAFLD is also commonly associated with other high-incident non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Aggravating the socio-economic impact of this complex pathology, routinely feasible diagnostic methodologies and effective drugs for NAFLD management are unavailable. The pathophysiology of NAFLD, defined as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), is correlated with abnormal adipose tissue–liver axis communication because obesity-associated white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and metabolic dysfunction prompt hepatic insulin resistance (IR), lipid accumulation (steatosis), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Accumulating evidence links adipokines, cytokine-like hormones secreted by adipose tissue that have immunometabolic activity, with NAFLD pathogenesis and progression.
  • 46
  • 16 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Adrenomedullin
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a bioactive peptide with various physiological functions, including vasodilation, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, organ protection, and tissue repair.
  • 274
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer
Advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Immunotherapy including the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab have been approved for use in various treatment settings in GEC. 
  • 174
  • 27 Apr 2021
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