Topic Review
Adipokines in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the major cause of chronic hepatic illness and the leading indication for liver transplantation in the future decades. NAFLD is also commonly associated with other high-incident non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Aggravating the socio-economic impact of this complex pathology, routinely feasible diagnostic methodologies and effective drugs for NAFLD management are unavailable. The pathophysiology of NAFLD, defined as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), is correlated with abnormal adipose tissue–liver axis communication because obesity-associated white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and metabolic dysfunction prompt hepatic insulin resistance (IR), lipid accumulation (steatosis), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. Accumulating evidence links adipokines, cytokine-like hormones secreted by adipose tissue that have immunometabolic activity, with NAFLD pathogenesis and progression.
  • 391
  • 16 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a bioactive peptide with various physiological functions, including vasodilation, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, organ protection, and tissue repair.
  • 837
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer
Advanced gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Immunotherapy including the anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab have been approved for use in various treatment settings in GEC. 
  • 512
  • 27 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Advancements in Understanding NAFLD
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recently renamed by an international consensus panel as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), affects up to 1 billion patients worldwide. This change in nomenclature is in keeping with more recent understanding of this disease and its inherent link to metabolic syndrome.
  • 183
  • 14 Nov 2023
Topic Review
AhR, NLRP3 Inflammasome and IBD
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). with colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) being a progressive intestinal inflammation due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While this is an exemplification of the negatives of inflammation, it is just as crucial to have some degree of the inflammatory process to maintain a healthy immune system. A pivotal component in the maintenance of such intestinal homeostasis is the innate immunity component, inflammasomes. Inflammasomes are large, cytosolic protein complexes formed following stimulation of microbial and stress signals that lead to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been extensively studied in part due to its strong association with colitis and CAC. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently been acknowledged for its connection to the immune system aside from its role as an environmental sensor. AhR has been described to play a role in the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation pathway. The NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the most extensively studied NLRs due to its clinical relevance in a wide range of human diseases. This 115 kDa cytosolic protein complex consists of a triadic constitution; the NACHT scaffold which serves as a central oligomerization domain with an ATPase activity, the N-terminal PYCARD adaptor which recruits the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and the C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) which are thought to be involved in detecting stimuli.
  • 605
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Alcohol Consumption and Pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is a common inflammatory disorder of the pancreas, associated with high mortality and healthcare burdens worldwide. It mainly consists of two forms: acute pancreatitis (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Alcohol exposure is a known etiological factor for both AP and CP.
  • 779
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a globally prevalent chronic liver disease caused by chronic or binge consumption of alcohol. Metabolites and byproducts generated during alcohol metabolism cause liver damage, leading to ALD via several mechanisms, such as impairing lipid metabolism, intensifying inflammatory reactions, and inducing fibrosis.
  • 1.6K
  • 24 Jun 2021
Topic Review
An Introduction to Liver Cancers
The liver is the largest and most functionally diverse organ in the human body, and is known to be a critical hub for multiple physiological processes. It is highly vascularized in its nature, making it the most common site for cancer development, especially metastatic cancers. 
  • 296
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Angiogenesis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. The hypervascular nature of the majority of HCCs and the peculiar vascular derangement occurring during liver carcinogenesis underscore the importance of angiogenesis in the development and progression of these tumors. Indeed, several angiogenic molecular pathways have been identified as deregulated in HCC. The hypervascular nature and the peculiar vascularization of HCC, as well as deregulated angiogenic pathways, represent major therapeutic targets.
  • 253
  • 26 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Angiogenesis in NAFLD
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease, exposing to the risk of liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • 500
  • 19 Apr 2021
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