Topic Review
Mitochondria-Targeted Drug in Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a major threat for human health. The available preventive and treatment interventions are insufficient to revert the underlying pathological processes, which underscores the urgency of alternative approaches. Mitochondria dysfunction plays a key role in the etiopathogenesis of CVD and is regarded as an intriguing target for the development of innovative therapies. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, and excessive fission are major noxious pathways amenable to drug therapy. Thanks to the advancements of nanotechnology research, several mitochondria-targeted drug delivery systems (DDS) have been optimized with improved pharmacokinetic and biocompatibility, and lower toxicity and antigenicity for application in the cardiovascular field.
  • 359
  • 03 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Atrial Fibrillation Diagnosis Measurements
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is a heart rhythm disorder. Hence, AF diagnosis is based on measurements which reflect the activity of the heart. Detectable symptoms of the disease might not be present all the time. Therefore, the measurement duration is positively correlated with the AF detection rate. Suitable measurements include photoplethysmogram, electrocardiogram, and heart rate. The data volume, produced through long term measurement, mandates computer support to automate the AF detection task.
  • 335
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Echocardiography in Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases
Echocardiography, including transthoracic two and three-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler imaging, myocardial deformation and transesophageal echo, is an established and widely available imaging technique for the identification of cardiovascular manifestations that are crucial for prognosis in rheumatic diseases. Echocardiography is also important for monitoring the impact of drug treatment on cardiac function, coronary microcirculatory function, valvular function and pulmonary artery pressures. 
  • 333
  • 17 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Endothelial Cell Dysfunction
Endothelial Cell (EC) dysfunction is one of the first triggers initiating the process of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH). EC dysfunction leads to the activation of several cellular signalling pathways in the endothelium, resulting in the uncontrolled proliferation of ECs, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts, and eventually leads to vascular remodelling and the occlusion of the pulmonary blood vessels. Other factors that are related to EC dysfunction in PAH are an increase in endothelial to mesenchymal transition, inflammation, apoptosis, and thrombus formation.
  • 330
  • 18 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Cardiovascular Diseases and Stem Cells
This entry provides an update on previous and current research in the field of Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a class of disorders affecting the heart or blood vessels. Despite progress in clinical research and therapy, CVDs still represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The hallmarks of cardiac diseases include inflammation, fibrosis, scar tissue, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, abnormal ventricular remodeling, and cardiomyocyte death, which is an irreversible process that induces heart failure with progressive and dramatic consequences. Both genetic and environmental factors pathologically contribute to the development of CVDs, but the precise causes that trigger cardiac diseases and their progression are still largely unknown. In this scenario, the possibility to generate patient-specific cardiac cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represents a powerful platform for the investigation of these life-threatening disorders.
  • 328
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Honey is one of the most prized medicinal remedies used since ancient times. There is evidence that indicates honey can function as a cardioprotective agent in cardiovascular diseases.
  • 321
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
C-reactive protein (CRP) apheresis
Almost every kind of inflammation in the human body is accompanied by rising C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. This can include bacterial and viral infection, chronic inflammation and so-called sterile inflammation triggered by (internal) acute tissue injury. CRP is part of the ancient humoral immune response and secreted into the circulation by the liver upon respective stimuli. Its main immunological functions are the opsonization of biological particles (bacteria and dead or dying cells) for their clearance by macrophages and the activation of the classical complement pathway. This not only helps to eliminate pathogens and dead cells, which is very useful in any case, but unfortunately also to remove only slightly damaged or inactive human cells that may potentially regenerate with more CRP-free time. CRP action severely aggravates the extent of tissue damage during the acute phase response after an acute injury and therefore negatively affects clinical outcome. CRP is therefore a promising therapeutic target to rescue energy-deprived tissue either caused by ischemic injury (e.g., myocardial infarction and stroke) or by an overcompensating immune reaction occurring in acute inflammation (e.g., pancreatitis) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS; e.g., after transplantation or surgery). Selective CRP apheresis can remove circulating CRP safely and efficiently. We explain the pathophysiological reasoning behind therapeutic CRP apheresis and summarize the broad span of indications in which its application could be beneficial with a focus on ischemic stroke as well as the results of this therapeutic approach after myocardial infarction.
  • 315
  • 17 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays important roles within the cardiovascular system in physiological states as well as in pathophysiologic and specific cardiovascular (CV) disease states, such as hypertension (HTN), arteriosclerosis, and cerebrovascular accidents.
  • 303
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
Polyoxygenated Chalcones
Polyphenols consumption has been associated to a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) notably through nitric oxide (NO)- and estrogen receptor α (ERα)-dependent pathways. Among polyphenolic compounds, chalcones have been suggested to prevent endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. However, the involvement of both the NO and the ERα pathways for the beneficial vascular effects of chalcones has never been demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to identify chalcones with high vasorelaxation potential and to characterize the signaling pathways in relation with ERα signaling and NO involvement. The evaluation of vasorelaxation potential was performed by myography on wild-type (WT) and ERα knock-out (ERα-KO) mice aorta in presence or in absence of the eNOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Among the set of chalcones that were synthesized, four exhibited a strong vasorelaxant effect (more than 80% vasorelaxation) while five compounds have shown a 60% relief of the pre-contraction and four compounds led to a lower vasorelaxation. We were able to demonstrate that the vasorelaxant effect of two highly active chalcones was either ERα-dependent and NO-independent or ERα-independent and NO-dependent.
  • 286
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
BKCa Channels
Large Conductance Calcium and Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels (BKCa). Also known as Slowpoke, KCa1.1, and MaxiK channels. 
  • 286
  • 27 Oct 2020
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