Topic Review
Airborne Chemical Exposure and Ocular Surface Irritation
In our recent paper "An Assessment of the Ocular Toxicity of Two Major Sources of Environmental Exposure" we discuss the impact on the eye of specific chemicals released from burn pits and from the East Palestine, Ohio train derailment. This entry discusses the importance of investigating the nature and consequences of these exposures in hopes of raising awareness of an underrecognized health issue.   
  • 75
  • 03 Jul 2024
Topic Review
Stress: Influences and Determinants of Psychopathology
The stress response is a natural physiological reaction of the organism, elicited to maintain the internal environment and evoke adaptive behaviors, ultimately leading to survival. However, at the turn of the century, stress-related disorders gained increasing significance. The aim of entry is to explore the fundamental question of when the stress system changes from a beneficial to a detrimental system, contributing to a higher risk of the development of disorders and/or diseases. To develop context, here, we explore the different concepts of stress and reveal the complexities, perspectives, and multiple relationships between the neurochemistry, cerebral functional network, and associated pathologies. According to the literature, the stress response affects nearly every biological system through the close interactions between the physiological, nervous, endocrine, and immune systems when faced with a real or perceived threat. Considering today’s challenging times, where people are facing multiple unavoidable adversities in their lives and a level of uncertainty never before seen, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding the potential consequences of being unable to cope with stressful events. Susceptibility and resilience to stress have gained recognition as important areas of study. The literature presented here enhances our understanding and identifies the causes of various psychopathologies, mental health conditions, disabilities, and even mortality that are closely linked to vulnerability to stress. Experimental studies from recent decades have demonstrated the many factors affecting our ability to cope with stress, including differences between individuals due to their genetic background, epigenetic regulation, gender, and early-life experiences. Finally, there is an urgent need to change the paradigm of modern lifestyles as a potential strategy to prevent the spread of the “health epidemic of the 21st century”, which is stress. Therefore, we acknowledge different approaches to enhance resilience, focusing on perception, tolerance, and positive lifestyle behaviors.
  • 55
  • 24 Jun 2024
Topic Review
CRISPR-Cas System and Urological Malignancies
Urological cancers account for a significant portion of cancer diagnoses and mortality rates worldwide. The traditional treatment options of surgery and chemoradiation can have significant morbidity and become ineffective in refractory disease. The discovery of the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) system has opened up new avenues for cancer research by targeting specific genes or mutations that play a role in cancer development and progression.
  • 575
  • 24 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Tumoroid
The term “tumoroid” means “tumor-like organoid”: tumoroids typically derive from primary tumors harvested from oncological patients and they can mimic human tumor microenvironment (TME); nowadays, they are considered a promising tool for cost-effective studies on novel anticancer drugs to be used in precision medicine in the field of oncology.
  • 4.4K
  • 18 Jun 2024
Topic Review
3D Printing in Prosthetic Dentistry
The speed of progress in the evolution of digital dental manufacturing has become truly remarkable. Subtractive methods have achieved remarkable levels of both efficiency and precision in achieving accurate fits, while additive techniques such as 3D printing are gaining prominence at an escalating rate.
  • 374
  • 18 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Benefits of Badminton for Preventing Cognitive Decline and Dementia
Badminton is one of the most popular racket sports played by all age groups worldwide. Anyone can practice and play badminton as a leisure or competitive sport, regardless of age, experience, or skill level. It does not require physical contact among players or expensive equipment. Compared with closed-skill exercises (e.g., running and swimming), open-skill exercises (e.g., badminton and table tennis) have been reported to significantly improve cognitive function and prevent cognitive decline. This mini review aimed to investigate the findings related to badminton intervention for cognitive function, with attention to the modifiable risk factors of dementia in adults. Additionally, we outlined the characteristics of badminton’s physical demands. This narrative review encompassed studies reported from 2013 to 2023 from multiple databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar. Keywords such as “badminton”, “dementia”, “cognitive function”, “physical activity”, and “depression” were used to identify relevant articles. Various studies, including randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case–control studies, were selected to provide a comprehensive overview of badminton intervention. Quantitative data analysis suggests that at a cognitive level, high-intensity badminton can enhance cognitive function with at least 10 min of play once weekly or 20 min of play once weekly on average, whereas moderate-intensity badminton can be effective when played for at least 30 min once weekly or 35 min twice weekly on average. For modifiable risk factors, recreational badminton for about 3 h weekly could effectively manage blood pressure. For body fat percentage and fasting serum glucose levels, recreational badminton for about 10 h weekly exerted positive effects. For depressive states, a moderate-intensity badminton program for 100 min weekly was effective. For lipid profiles associated with dementia occurrence, prolonged badminton intervention for more than 3 months may be beneficial. The characteristics presented here indicate that intervention with regular badminton exercise could effectively improve cognitive function and prevent cognitive decline in older adults.
  • 425
  • 18 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Popular Influenza Antiviral Drugs
Influenza viruses cause acute respiratory infections responsible for significant mortality and morbidity around the world. Various factors, such as antigenic drift, allow influenza strains to avoid being fully suppressed by seasonal vaccines. This has led to the increased scrutiny of antivirals as treatment and prophylaxis options for seasonal outbreaks and potential pandemics. Unfortunately, many influenza antivirals suffer from a lack of adequate clinical trials, as well as a lack of toxicity data. This is especially true of umifenovir (arbidol), a drug popularly used for the prevention and treatment of influenza strains in China and Russia. Neuraminidase inhibitors, though widely prescribed, display a potential for future resistance. Adamantanes, while proven to be effective in treating influenza A, are already encountering rapid and widespread cross-resistance and are effectively obsolete. Baloxavir marboxil, a newer antiviral, shows promise in treating acute uncomplicated influenza and may avoid the development of resistance when co-administered with other antiviral drugs. Indeed, the low genetic barrier to resistance associated with influenza antivirals could potentially be overcome by co-administration with other antivirals.
  • 237
  • 13 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
A Systematic Review of Effects on ACL Injury of Soccer Shoe Outsoles, Soccer Playing Field Surfaces, and Outsole–Surface Interface
Soccer is a sport with a high incidence of injuries. The most common injury occurs when the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee has undergone a sprain, strain, or partial or total rupture. Besides fitness factors (e.g., proprioception, balance and strength capabilities), a principal cause of ACL injuries is sport shoes and playing surfaces. Especially with the emergence of artificial surfaces (rubbers, turfs, concrete, asphalt, red turf), the ACL injuries dramatically increase. The cost of ACL injuries is high both in terms of career termination and in social and economic costs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the impact of sport shoes and playing surfaces on the ACL and how it can be mitigated. The present literature review followed the PRISMA methodology to identify the major biomechanical factors influencing the behavior of surfaces and shoes in relation to the ACL damage. Fifty-eight papers were identified. After reviewing the mechanism of injuries, we identified several distinct factors: type of outsole and mechanical arrangement of the outsoles; shear forces; characteristics of artificial turf surfaces; effect of weather on artificial surface aging and change in mechanical characteristics; outsole/ground interface; and the frictional, tractional and rotational forces in the pathogenesis of ACL injuries in soccer.
  • 351
  • 28 May 2024
Topic Review
Appetite Regulation and Bariatric Surgery
Obesity remains a common metabolic disorder and a threat to health as it is associated with numerous complications. Lifestyle modifications and caloric restriction can achieve limited weight loss. Bariatric surgery is an effective way of achieving substantial weight loss as well as glycemic control secondary to weight-related type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • 194
  • 27 May 2024
Topic Review
Cistus albidus L.
Cistus albidus is one of the approximately 20 species of the Cistus genus. The genus’ name is derived from the ancient Greek term kistos. It is supposed that the name alludes to the woody capsule fruits. Evergreen in its Mediterranean homeland and between 50 and 250 centimeters tall, this shrub is called albidus, not because of the colour of its flowers, but because its leaves are finely covered with white hair (trichomes).
  • 157
  • 23 May 2024
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