Topic Review
SARS-CoV-2 Vertical Infection of Newborns
Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has been isolated from various tissues and body fluids, including the placenta, amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord of newborns. Much scientific effort has been directed toward studying SARS-CoV-2, focusing on the different features of the virus, such as its structure and mechanisms of action. In addition, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on creating reliable diagnostic techniques and different drugs or vaccinations for treating COVID-19 disease.
  • 3
  • 04 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Health Effects of Isoflavones
Estrogenic isoflavones are essentially considered to be the hydroxylated compounds i.e. genistein, daidzein and glycitein, the methoxylated substances i.e. biochanin A and formononetin as well as the isoflavane metabolite: equol. Their estrogenic effects have been shown in many occasions and many models and they can be either beneficial or adverse depending on the physiological status of the consummers.
  • 5
  • 04 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Radiotherapy Considerations for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Radiotherapy is the primary treatment modality for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Successful curative treatment requires optimal radiotherapy planning and precise beam delivery that maximizes locoregional control while minimizing treatment-related side effects.
  • 5
  • 04 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Expression and Functions for Ezrin in Human Cancers
Ezrin (EZR), a member of the ezrin, radixin, moesin (ERM) protein family, is essential for linking the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane and participates in the signal transduction of key signaling pathways such as Rho GTPases and PI3K/AKT/mTOR. Clinical and preclinical studies in a wide variety of solid and hematological tumors indicate that (i) EZR is highly expressed and predicts an unfavorable clinical outcome, and (ii) EZR inhibition reduces proliferation, migration, and invasion in experimental models.
  • 13
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
The Applications of Colonic Transendoscopic enteral tubing
The limitation of traditional delivery methods for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) gave birth to colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET) to address the requirement of frequent FMTs. Colonic TET as a novel endoscopic intervention has received increasing attention in practice since 2015 in China. Emerging studies from multiple centers indicate that colonic TET is a promising, safe, and practical delivery method for microbial therapy and administering medication with high patient satisfaction.
  • 17
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Surgery in Autoimmune Pancreatitis
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first described as a clinical entity in 1961 by Sarles et al. who described a type of sclerosing pancreatitis associated with hypergammaglobulinemia.
  • 8
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Role microRNA in Prostate and Breast Cancer
Micro ribonucleic acids (microRNAs or miRNAs) form a distinct subtype of non-coding RNA and are widely recognized as one of the most significant gene expression regulators in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, the regulation occurs through microRNA binding with its response elements in the 3’-untranslated region of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), resulting in the post-transcriptional silencing of genes, expressing target mRNAs. Compared to small interfering RNAs, microRNAs have more complex regulatory patterns, making them suitable for fine-tuning gene expressions in different tissues. Dysregulation of microRNAs is well known as one of the causative factors in malignant cell growth. Breast cancer (BCa) is the most common cancer in women worldwide and seriously impairs patients’ physical health. Its incidence has been predicted to rise further. Mounting evidence indicates that microRNAs play key roles in tumorigenesis and development. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men. Different microRNAs play an important role in PCa. Early diagnosis of BCa and PCa using microRNAs is very useful for improving individual outcomes in the framework of predictive, preventive, and personalized (3P) medicine, thereby reducing the economic burden.
  • 23
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Richter Syndrome
Richter syndrome (RS) represents the occurrence of an aggressive lymphoma, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • 51
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Therapeutic of Valproic Acid Metabolites ant Its Role
Valproic acid (CH3CH2CH2)2CHCOOH 2-propylvaleric acid, VPA) is a fatty acid derivative originally synthesized. Valproic acid (VPA) and its salts are psychotropic drugs that are widely used in neurological diseases (epilepsy, neuropathic pain, migraine, etc.) and psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, addiction diseases, etc.). In addition, the indications for the appointment of valproate have been expanding in recent years in connection with the study of new mechanisms of action of therapeutic and toxic metabolites of VPA in the human body. Thus, VPA is considered a component of disease-modifying therapy for multiple tumors, neurodegenerative diseases (Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Duchenne progressive dystrophy, etc.), and human immunodeficiency syndrome. The metabolism of VPA is complex and continues to be studied. Known pathways of VPA metabolism include: β-oxidation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (acetylation); oxidation with the participation of cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes (P-oxidation); and glucuronidation. The complex metabolism of VPA explains the diversity of its active and inactive metabolites, which have therapeutic, neutral, or toxic effects. 
  • 19
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Therapy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common sleep problems defined by cessation or decreased airflow despite breathing efforts. It is known to be related to multiple adverse health consequences. Positive airway pressure (PAP) is considered an effective treatment that is widely used. Various modes of PAP and other emerging treatment options are now available.
  • 11
  • 03 Feb 2023
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