Topic Review
γδ T Cells in ARDs
Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), affecting ~1–1.5% of all humans, are associated with considerable life long morbidity and early mortality. Early studies in the 1990s showed numerical changes of the recently discovered γδ T cells in the peripheral blood and in affected tissues of patients with a variety of ARDs, kindling interest in their role in the immuno-pathogenesis of these chronic inflammatory conditions. Indeed, later studies applied rapid developments in the understanding of γδ T cell biology, including antigens recognized by γδ T cells, their developmental programs, states of activation, and cytokine production profiles, to analyze their contribution to the pathological immune response in these disorders.
  • 125
  • 14 May 2021
Topic Review
β-Adrenergic Stimulation
β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-ARS) is a physiological mechanism that regulates cardiovascular function under stress conditions or physical exercise, producing a positive inotropic (enhanced contraction), lusitropic (faster relaxation), and chronotropic (increased heart rate) effect. 
  • 132
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease of unknown origin that is characterized by immune system abnormalities, vascular damage, and extensive fibrosis of the skin and visceral organs. α2-antiplasmin is known to be the main plasmin inhibitor and has various functions such as cell differentiation and cytokine production, as well as the regulation of the maintenance of the immune system, endothelial homeostasis, and extracellular matrix metabolism.
  • 166
  • 14 Mar 2022
Topic Review
α-Synuclein in Gene Expression
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small cytosolic protein associated with a range of cellular compartments, including synaptic vesicles, the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes. In addition to its physiological role in regulating presynaptic function, the protein plays a central role in both sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (PD) via a gain-of-function mechanism. Because of this, several recent strategies propose to decrease α-Syn levels in PD patients.
  • 124
  • 13 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Zebrafish Models of Neuroblastoma
For nearly a decade, researchers in the field of pediatric oncology have been using zebrafish as a model for understanding the contributions of genetic alternations to the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma (NB), and exploring the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie neuroblastoma initiation and metastasis.
  • 152
  • 18 Mar 2021
Topic Review
ZEB1 in Cornea
ZEB1 is an important transcription factor for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and in the regulation of cell differentiation and transformation. In the cornea, ZEB1 presents in all three layers: the epithelium, the stroma and the endothelium. Mutations of ZEB1 have been linked to multiple corneal genetic defects, particularly to the corneal dystrophies including keratoconus (KD), Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD).
  • 109
  • 22 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Yeast Cell Polarity
A bottom-up route towards predicting evolution relies on a deep understanding of the complex network that proteins form inside cells. In a rapidly expanding panorama of experimental possibilities, the most difficult question is how to conceptually approach the disentangling of such complex networks. These can exhibit varying degrees of hierarchy and modularity, which obfuscate protein functions that may prove pivotal for adaptation. Using the well-established polarity network in budding yeast as a case study, we organize current literature to highlight protein entrenchments inside polarity in five sub modules: timing, mating, bud-scar, reaction-diffusion and the actin pathway. 
  • 180
  • 07 Dec 2020
Topic Review
YAP/TAZ Activation in Head and Neck Cancer
The Hippo signaling pathway, originally discovered as a mechanism regulating tissue growth and organ size, transduces intracellular and extracellular signals to regulate the transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ. Alterations in the Hippo pathway resulting in persistent YAP and TAZ activation have emerged as major oncogenic drivers. The researchers' analysis of the human Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) oncogenome revealed multiple genomic alterations impairing Hippo signaling and activating YAP and TAZ, which in turn contribute to HNSCC development. This includes mutations and deletions of the FAT1 gene (29%) and amplification of the WWTR1 (encoding TAZ, 14%) and YAP1 genes (8%), together representing one of the most genetically altered signaling mechanisms in this malignancy. 
  • 151
  • 11 May 2022
Topic Review
Xanthohumol Is a Potent Pan-Inhibitor of Coronaviruses
Coronaviruses cause diseases in humans and livestock. The SARS-CoV-2 is infecting millions of human beings, with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The main protease (Mpro) of coronavirus plays a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription, which, in theory, is an attractive drug target for antiviral drug development. It has been extensively discussed whether Xanthohumol is able to help COVID-19 patients. Here, researchers report that Xanthohumol, a small molecule in clinical trials from hops (Humulus lupulus), was a potent pan-inhibitor for various coronaviruses by targeting Mpro, for example, betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (IC50 value of 1.53 μM), and alphacoronavirus PEDV (IC50 value of 7.51 μM). Xanthohumol inhibited Mpro activities in the enzymatical assays, while pretreatment with Xanthohumol restricted the SARS-CoV-2 and PEDV replication in Vero-E6 cells. Therefore, Xanthohumol is a potent pan-inhibitor of coronaviruses and an excellent lead compound for further drug development.
  • 85
  • 22 Dec 2021
Topic Review
WWOX Controls Cell Survival, Immune Response, Disease Progression
Tumor suppressor WWOX inhibits cancer growth and retards Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Supporting evidence shows that the more strongly WWOX binds intracellular protein partners, the weaker is cancer cell growth in vivo. Whether this correlates with retardation of AD progression is unknown. Two functional forms of WWOX exhibit opposite functions. pY33-WWOX is proapoptotic and anticancer, and is essential for maintaining normal physiology. 
  • 61
  • 14 Jul 2022
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