Topic Review
Implications of MALDI-TOF MS for Microbial Recognition
MALDI-TOF MS has various benefits over the conventional method of biochemical identification, including ease of use, speed, accuracy, and low cost.
  • 40
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Structure and Properties of Glucansucrase
Glucansucrase (GS) belongs to the GH70 family, which not only can synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPSs) with different physicochemical properties through glucosyl transglycosylation (by hydrolyzing sucrose) but can also produce oligosaccharides. 
  • 38
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Immobilized Biocatalysts for the Synthesis of Exopolysaccharides
Biocatalytic synthesis of polysaccharides (PSs) is one of the promising and topical areas of the development of modern biotechnology. The variety of useful properties (the ability for gelation, the formation of viscous solutions, high adhesive ability, etc.) helps the PSs to find still newer applications in a plethora of fields. Biocatalysts determine the possible range of renewable raw materials which can be used as substrates for such synthesis, as well as the biochemistry of the process and the rate of molecular transformations. The functioning of biocatalysts can be optimized using the following main approaches of synthetic biology: the use of recombinant biocatalysts, the creation of artificial consortia, the combination of nano- and microbiocatalysts, and their immobilization. New biocatalysts can help expand the variety of the polysaccharides’ useful properties. 
  • 16
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Bioproducts from the Microalgae-Bacteria Interaction
In nature, interactions between bacteria and microalgae play an indispensable role in maintaining the integrity of the aquatic ecosystem through networks of interactions such as competition and mutualism. In fact, in the wild, the growth of algae is consistently associated with the growth of other microorganisms, especially bacteria. Axenic culture systems and sterilization of culture media in large-scale production of microalga are not economically feasible. Therefore, the characterization of associated heterotrophs in algae culture systems is an important step since bacteria may use compounds excreted by algae, increasing the availability of trace elements and solubility of nutrients, making them more bioavailable for microalgae. In addition, they can help to reduce the saturation of dissolved O2. In microalgae cultivation, it is well known that dissolved O2 can attain inhibitory levels.
  • 26
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2-Based Biosensing Modalities
Rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a critical and valuable weapon for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic response. SARS-CoV-2 invasion is primarily mediated by human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Recent developments in ACE2-based SARS-CoV-2 detection modalities accentuate the potential of this natural host-virus interaction for developing point-of-care (POC) COVID-19 diagnostic systems.
  • 31
  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Pluripotent Stem Cells in Livestock and Wildlife
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is an emerging technique to reprogram somatic cells into iPSCs that have revolutionary benefits in the fields of drug discovery, cellular therapy, and personalized medicine. In both mice and humans, embryonic stem cell lines (ESCs) have been established. However, this is not the case for farm and wild animals. Cryopreservation is an important and useful approach to preserve endangered wild and domestic species as well as their genetic material. Several studies have shown the potential of iPSCs to prevent the extinction of several valuable species, such as the snow leopard, Bengal tiger, drill monkey, and white rhinoceros
  • 129
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Tissue-Engineered Grafts with Minimally Manipulated Cells
Transfer of regenerative approaches into clinical practice is limited by strict legal regulation of in vitro expanded cells and risks associated with substantial manipulations. Isolation of cells for the enrichment of bone grafts directly in the Operating Room appears to be a promising solution for the translation of biomedical technologies into clinical practice. These intraoperative approaches could be generally characterized as a joint concept of tissue engineering in situ.
  • 35
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Agro-Industrial Food Waste for Production of Industrial Enzymes
The grave environmental, social, and economic concerns over the unprecedented exploitation of non-renewable energy resources have drawn the attention of policy makers and research organizations towards the sustainable use of agro-industrial food and crop wastes. Enzymes are versatile biocatalysts with immense potential to transform the food industry and lignocellulosic biorefineries. Microbial enzymes offer cleaner and greener solutions to produce fine chemicals and compounds. The production of industrially important enzymes from abundantly present agro-industrial food waste offers economic solutions for the commercial production of value-added chemicals. The recent developments in biocatalytic systems are designed to either increase the catalytic capability of the commercial enzymes or create new enzymes with distinctive properties. The limitations of low catalytic efficiency and enzyme denaturation in ambient conditions can be mitigated by employing diverse and inexpensive immobilization carriers, such as agro-food based materials, biopolymers, and nanomaterials. Moreover, revolutionary protein engineering tools help in designing and constructing tailored enzymes with improved substrate specificity, catalytic activity, stability, and reaction product inhibition. This review discusses the recent developments in the production of essential industrial enzymes from agro-industrial food trash and the application of low-cost immobilization and enzyme engineering approaches for sustainable development.
  • 38
  • 21 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Nutrient-Limited Operational Strategies for Microbial Production of Biochemicals
Limiting an essential nutrient has a profound impact on microbial growth. The notion of growth under limited conditions was first described using simple Monod kinetics proposed in the 1940s. Different operational modes (chemostat, fed-batch processes) were soon developed to address questions related to microbial physiology and cell maintenance and to enhance product formation. With more recent developments of metabolic engineering and systems biology, as well as high-throughput approaches, the focus of current engineers and applied microbiologists has shifted from these fundamental biochemical processes. 
  • 44
  • 21 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Drinking Water Microbiome
Microbial communities interact with us and affect our health in ways that are only beginning to be understood. Microorganisms have been detected in every ecosystem on Earth, as well as in any built environment that has been investigated. Drinking water sources, drinking water treatment plants and distribution systems provide peculiar microbial ecological niches, dismantling the belief of the “biological simplicity” of drinking water. The assemblage of microbes within drinking water is referred to as the drinking water microbiota (“microbiome” when referring to the associated genetic information), and it accounts for about 106–108 cells/L. Recent DNA sequencing and meta-omics advancements allow a deeper understanding of drinking water microbiota.
  • 63
  • 16 Nov 2022
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