Topic Review
Fathers of Bacteriology
Dr. Robert Koch was a German microbiologist and Nobel Laureate perhaps best known for his research and discovery of the Tubercle Bacille (TB) bacterium in the late 19th century. 
  • 553
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D in Long COVID-19
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global pandemic. Reports from different parts of the world indicate that a significant proportion of people who have recovered from COVID-19 are suffering from various health problems collectively referred to as “long COVID-19”. Common symptoms include fatigue, shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain, muscle aches, headaches, and so on. Vitamin D is an immunomodulatory hormone with proven efficacy against various upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D can inhibit hyperinflammatory reactions and accelerate the healing process in the affected areas, especially in lung tissue. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases, with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D found in patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory failure. However, no evidence has been found to support a role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing symptoms of long-COVID-19. On the other hand, having a higher vitamin D level before SARS-CoV-2 infection or raising it rapidly at the first symptoms of infection can significantly reduce the risk and severity of COVID-19.
  • 236
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
In Vitro Lung Models
In vitro lung models are used to faithfully model basic human pathology and the complexity and diversity of human respiratory tissues and to study emerging viral respiratory pathogens and diseases. These models include conventional cell lines, primary human airway epithelial cell (hAEC) cultures, lung organoids, lung-on-a-chip technology, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) models and human lung tissue explants.
  • 178
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis is a common neglected tropical disease of impoverished people and livestock in many developing countries in tropical Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America. 
  • 175
  • 02 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Betulinic Acid
Betulinic acid (BA, 3β-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid present predominantly in Betula ssp. (Betulaceae) and is also widely spread in many species belonging to different plant families. BA presents a wide spectrum of remarkable pharmacological properties, such as cytotoxic, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities, including antiprotozoal effects.
  • 172
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Leptospirosis Kidney Disease
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic and waterborne disease worldwide. Leptospirosis emerges as a leading cause of acute febrile illness along with hepatorenal injury in many countries, including Thailand. Although acute kidney injury in the spectrum of interstitial nephritis is a well-described characteristic in severe leptospirosis, chronic kidney disease from leptospirosis is widely discussed. Early recognition of severe leptospirosis leads to reduce morbidity and mortality. 
  • 164
  • 21 Mar 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
COVID-19: Gender and Outcomes
The existence of differences in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection between males and females in both incidence and outcomes is well documented in the scientific literature. These differences, which are still underestimated, may have important implications in terms of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19, with significant prognostic consequences. The greater severity of the infection observed in males, even more so if they are elderly, would seem, according to current knowledge, to be due to multiple influences: immunological and endocrinological, but also genetic and behavioral.
  • 160
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Canine Leishmaniasis
During canine leishmaniasis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum (L. infantum), uncontrolled infection leads to a strong humoral immune response. As a consequence of the production of high antibody levels and the prolonged presence of parasite antigens, circulating immune complexes (CIC) are formed, which can be deposited in certain organs and tissues, inducing vasculitis, uveitis, dermatitis and especially glomerulonephritis and renal failure. A method to detect CIC, and quantify their levels in serum samples from dogs infected with L. infantum has been recently described. It allowed to demonstrate a correlation between CIC levels and disease severity. Thus, CIC measurement may be useful for diagnosis, assessment of disease progression and for monitoring response to treatment. This is an interesting finding, considering that there remains an urgent need for identification of novel biomarkers to achieve a correct diagnosis and for optimal disease staging of dogs suffering from Leishmania infection.
  • 157
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Pharmacogenetics Approach for COVID-19 Treatment
Pharmacogenetics could explain the interindividual variability in the treatment used for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and improve patients’ outcomes with this complex disease. Relevant considerations should be taken into account in the design of the pharmacogenetic studies for drugs used in COVID-19. 
  • 156
  • 10 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Adrenomedullin and COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic is still in progress, and a significant number of patients have presented with severe illness. Recently introduced vaccines, antiviral medicines, and antibody formulations can suppress COVID-19 symptoms and decrease the number of patients exhibiting severe disease. However, complete avoidance of severe COVID-19 has not been achieved and there are insufficient methods to treat it. Adrenomedullin (AM) is an endogenous peptide that maintains vascular tone and endothelial barrier function. The AM plasma level is markedly increased during severe inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and COVID-19, and associated with its prognosis. Exogenous AM administration reduced inflammation and related organ damage in rodent models. The results strongly suggest that AM could be an alternative therapy for COVID-19. Researchers are currently conducting an investigator-initiated phase 2a trial for moderate to severe COVID-19 using AM.
  • 151
  • 07 Mar 2022
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