Topic Review
AI for Preoperative Measurements in Total Knee Arthroplasty
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is widely used in clinical practice as an effective treatment for end-stage knee joint lesions. It can effectively correct joint deformities, relieve painful symptoms, and improve joint function. The reconstruction of lower extremity joint lines and soft tissue balance are important factors related to the durability of the implant; therefore, it is especially important to measure the joint lines and associated angles before TKA. 
  • 315
  • 15 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Anal Stenosis
Anal stenosis (AS) is defined as anatomical or functional narrowing of the anal canal, which can result from inflammatory bowel diseases, radiation therapy, congenital malformations, or excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The anatomical AS is related to the increased fibrous scar tissue forming, which disables stretching of the anal canal. The leading cause of the anatomical AS is excisional hemorrhoidectomy that is often the chosen treatment for grade III and IV hemorrhoidal disease.
  • 1.9K
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Anti-Angiogenic Agents in Thymic Epithelial Tumor Treatment
Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are included in the rare group of cancers of the anterior mediastinum known as thymic epithelial tumors (TET). Their origin is the thymus’ epithelial cells. Anti-angiogenics have shown their potential efficacy in many solid tumors; however, their place in the treatment of thymic epithelial tumors (TET) comprising thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) is less clear. Angiogenesis significantly influences TET carcinogenesis. Both thymomas and TC overexpress VEGF-A and VEGFR-1 and -2.
  • 90
  • 15 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Antibiotic Cement and Spine Surgery
Antibiotic bone cement (ABC) is an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of osteomyelitis due to the controlled, sustained release of local antibiotics. ABC has been proven to be effective in the orthopedic fields of arthroplasty and extremity trauma, but the adoption of ABC in spine surgery is limited. The characteristics of ABC make it an optimal solution for treating vertebral osteomyelitis (VO), a serious complication following spine surgery, typically caused by bacterial and sometimes fungal and parasitic pathogens.
  • 308
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Applications of Advancing Prone-Transpsoas Spine Surgery
The Prone Transpsoas (PTP) approach to lumbar spine surgery, emerging as an evolution of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), offers significant advantages over traditional methods. PTP has demonstrated increased lumbar lordosis gains compared to LLIF, owing to the natural increase in lordosis afforded by prone positioning. Additionally, the prone position offers anatomical advantages, with shifts in the psoas muscle and lumbar plexus, reducing the likelihood of postoperative femoral plexopathy and moving critical peritoneal contents away from the approach. Furthermore, operative efficiency is a notable benefit of PTP. 
  • 80
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Intra-Abdominal Infections
Adequately controlling the source of infection and prescribing appropriately antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Correctly classifying patients with IAIs is crucial to assessing the severity of their clinical condition and deciding the strategy of the treatment, including a correct empiric antibiotic therapy. Best practices in prescribing antibiotics may impact patient outcomes and the cost of treatment, as well as the risk of “opportunistic” infections such as Clostridioides difficile infection and the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
  • 253
  • 26 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence for Surgeons
Computer vision (CV) is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that deals with the automatic analysis of videos and images. Recent advances in AI and CV methods coupled with the growing availability of surgical videos of minimally invasive procedures have led to the development of AI-based algorithms to improve surgical care.
  • 301
  • 27 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in Breast Surgery
Breast reconstruction is a pivotal part of the recuperation process following a mastectomy and aims to restore both the physical aesthetic and emotional well-being of breast cancer survivors. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a revolutionary technology across numerous medical disciplines. The role of AI in the domain of breast reconstruction is explored. 
  • 272
  • 17 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be a useful tool in the management of disease processes such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as treatment decisions are often complex and multifaceted. AI applications in medicine are expanding with the ongoing advances in AI including more sophisticated machine learning and deep learning processes.
  • 113
  • 25 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Atypical Skull-Base Osteomyelitis
Atypical skull-base osteomyelitis is a rare but fatal disease that usually involves infection of the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, or temporal bones that form the skull base. Unlike typical (so-called otogenic), atypical skull-base osteomyelitis has no otogenic cause. Instead, some authors call atypical skull-base osteomyelitis sinonasal, since the infection most often originates from the nose and paranasal sinuses. 
  • 320
  • 09 May 2023
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