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Pyogenic Liver Abscess
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a common global public health problem as it contributes to 13% of intra-abdominal abscesses. With advancements in diagnostic microbiology, imaging technology, improved understanding of sepsis and critical care, and minimally invasive image-guided interventions such as percutaneous drainage (PD), clinical outcomes continue to improve; however, PLA-related mortality remains high, in the range of 10–30%. Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the leading causative organism for PLA, followed by Escherichia coli (EC). Klebsiella pneumoniae pyogenic liver abscess (KPPLA) is associated with DM and gas formation, possibly impacting clinical outcomes.
07 Sep 2022
3D Imaging in Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
Liver resection is recognized worldwide as a potentially curative treatment for patients with primary and secondary malignancies and resectable disease. Preoperative 3D reconstructions and printing as well as augmented reality can increase the knowledge of the specific anatomy of the case and therefore plan the surgery accordingly and tailor the procedure on the patient. Furthermore, the indocyanine green retention dye is an increasingly used tool that can nowadays improve the precision during laparoscopic hepatectomies, especially when considering anatomical resection. The use of preoperative modern imaging and intraoperative indocyanine green dye are key to successfully perform complex hepatectomies such as laparoscopic parenchymal sparing liver resections.
09 Dec 2021
3D Printing and Nanotechnologies in Biofilms
Biofilms remain one of the most pervasive complications of the medical field, representing 50–70% of all nosocomial infections and up to 80% of total microbial infections. Since biofilms contain intricately small matrices, different microenvironments, and accumulations of biodiverse microorganisms of different resistances, these structures end up being difficult to target.
08 Oct 2023
3D-Assisted Acetabular Fracture Surgery
The techniques currently used in 3D-assisted acetabular fracture surgery are 3D printing and visual surgical planning, 3D printing and pre-contouring of implants, and custom-made patient-specific implants. Three-dimensional-assisted surgery compared to conventional surgery reduces operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy usage, and complication rate. Evidence for the improvement of postoperative fracture reduction and physical functioning is limited, because of heterogeneity and varying qualities of the studies.
28 Oct 2021
A Smarter Health through Internet of Surgical Things
To systematically study the technological advances in a particular sector, attributed to the utilization of the Internet, the term “Internet of Things” (IoT) was introduced. The present systematic review, aims to present and analyze the modern applications of the IoT within the surgical world. While not strictly defined, IoT describes a network of Internet-based connected things equipped with (embedded) sensing and actuating devices, with data production, processing, and consumption abilities. The utilization of the Internet and IoT in medical practice can take many shapes and forms. Ranging from the awe-inspiring telesurgical procedures to complex AI machine learning applications that aid in medical decision making , to a simple email containing a preoperative CT scan, the Internet of Surgical Things (IoST) is here to stay.
04 Jul 2022
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
Compartment syndrome occurs when increased pressure inside a closed anatomical space compromises tissue perfusion. The sudden increase in pressure inside these spaces requires rapid decompression by means of surgical intervention. In the case of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), surgical decompression consists of a laparostomy.
10 Jan 2022
Adipokines and Breast Cancer
Adipokines (also known as adipocytokines) is a vast group of heterogenous soluble factors produced by adipose tissue that function in different pathways involving metabolism, inflammation, and vascular homeostasis. Adipokines interact with and activate different pathways that contribute to the hallmarks of breast cancer since they express respective receptors for the interaction.
22 Mar 2023
Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells in Kidney Transplantation
Kidney transplantation (KT) is the gold standard treatment of end-stage renal disease. Among the many peri-operative complications that can jeopardize transplant outcomes, ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) deserves special consideration as it is associated with delayed graft function, acute rejection, and premature transplant loss. Adipose stem/stromal cells (ASCs) possess specific characteristics that could help prevent, reduce, or reverse IRI.
22 Nov 2021
Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Autologous Breast Reconstruction
In autologous breast reconstruction, a sufficient flap volume is fundamental to restore breast shape and ensure an aesthetic outcome. After mastectomy, postoperative irradiation is regularly indicated in the oncological treatment algorithm. When administering radiation therapy after autologous reconstruction, the tissue transferred is inherently irradiated. Although there is evidence that points to a reduction in flap volume after adjuvant radiotherapy, the data have been contradicting and inconclusive.
10 Jan 2024
Adult Abdominal Tuberculosis Diagnosis
Tuberculosis is a common systemic infection with the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is primarily found in the lungs and causes caseous inflammation in lung tissue and other organs. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spreads via the air. Tuberculosis is an endemic disease in developing countries, due to the wide spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), it might represent a problem in developed countries, as well. Only around one-fifth of patients diagnosed with abdominal TB have pulmonary disease.
29 Mar 2022
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
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Luis V. Lopez-Llorca
Encyclopedia of Digital Society, Industry 5.0 and Smart City
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