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Augmented Reality in Minimally Invasive Surgery Procedures
Augmented reality (AR) technology is gaining increasing interest in the development of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedures. The main application areas can be divided into three main groups: Navigation, education and training, and user-environment interfaces. Although AR-guided navigation systems do not yet offer a precision advantage, benefits include improved ergonomics and visualization, as well as reduced surgical time and blood loss. Benefits are also seen in improved education and training conditions and improved user environment interfaces, which may indirectly influence MIS procedures. Controlled studies with large case numbers and standardized outcome parameters and reporting are lacking to confirm the added value for clinical use.
04 May 2023
Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Metastases
Gastric cancer (GC) has a poor prognostic and only one in four patients will have survived by 5 years after diagnosis. These poor results are due to the fact that most patients are diagnosed in advanced stages; peritoneal metastases (PM) are especially frequent and are difficult to treat. PM are considered a terminal stage of GC with a poor survival rate and are treated with palliative systemic chemotherapy. The treatment of PM from different origins has evolved; cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have become the treatment of choice for many malignant diseases that affect the peritoneum. CRS and HIPEC have also been used for patients with GC and PM, achieving survival results that have never been achieved when using systemic chemotherapy alone. The use of HIPEC can even prevent the development of peritoneal recurrences in patients with locally advanced GC as adjuvant therapy, can reduce the volume of peritoneal disease as neoadjuvant therapy, and can control symptoms in a palliative setting.
13 Apr 2023
Tumor Vascular Involvement and Surgical Planning
Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) are locally aggressive tumors that can compromise major vessels of the retroperitoneum including the inferior vena cava, aorta, or main tributary vessels. Vascular involvement can be secondary to the tumor’s infiltrating growth pattern or primary vascular origin.
06 Apr 2023
The Challenge of Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma
Perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (pCCA) are rare yet aggressive tumors originating from the bile ducts. While surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, only a minority of patients are amenable to curative resection, and the prognosis of unresectable patients is dismal. The introduction of liver transplantation (LT) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for unresectable pCCA in 1993 represented a major breakthrough, and it has been associated with 5-year survival rates consistently >50%. Despite these encouraging results, pCCA has remained a niche indication for LT, which is most likely due to the need for stringent candidate selection and the challenges in preoperative and surgical management.
27 Mar 2023
Adipokines and Breast Cancer
Adipokines (also known as adipocytokines) is a vast group of heterogenous soluble factors produced by adipose tissue that function in different pathways involving metabolism, inflammation, and vascular homeostasis. Adipokines interact with and activate different pathways that contribute to the hallmarks of breast cancer since they express respective receptors for the interaction.
22 Mar 2023
AI for Preoperative Measurements in Total Knee Arthroplasty
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is widely used in clinical practice as an effective treatment for end-stage knee joint lesions. It can effectively correct joint deformities, relieve painful symptoms, and improve joint function. The reconstruction of lower extremity joint lines and soft tissue balance are important factors related to the durability of the implant; therefore, it is especially important to measure the joint lines and associated angles before TKA.
15 Mar 2023
Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Based Targeted Therapy Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with high mortality rates and poor prognoses. Despite rapid progress in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the efficacy of current therapeutic strategies remains limited. Hence, better alternative therapeutic options for treating pancreatic cancer need to be urgently explored. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have recently received much attention as a potential therapy for pancreatic cancer owing to their tumor-homing properties.
15 Mar 2023
Tissue Senescence Reversing Techniques Modalities
Senescent cells and fibrosis are important components that impact the regenerative capacity of skin, particularly when considering chronic non-healing wounds. Anoderm and perianal fistulas in the setting of Crohn’s disease are clinically pathophysiological extremes with consequently different healing processes which impact treatment modalities.
27 Feb 2023
Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes
Coated stents are defined as innovative stents surrounded by a thin polymer membrane based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)useful in the treatment of numerous vascular pathologies. Endovascular methodology involves the use of such devices to restore blood flow in small-, medium- and large-calibre arteries, both centrally and peripherally. These membranes cross the stent struts and act as a physical barrier to block the growth of intimal tissue in the lumen, preventing so-called intimal hyperplasia and late stent thrombosis. PTFE for vascular applications is known as expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) and it can be rolled up to form a thin multilayer membrane expandable by 4 to 5 times its original diameter. This membrane plays an important role in initiating the restenotic process because wrapped graft stent could be used as the treatment option for trauma devices during emergency situations and to treat a number of pathological vascular disease.
27 Feb 2023
Textured Surface Implants and BIA-ALCL
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a variant of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) associated with textured-surface silicone breast implants. Since first being described in 1997, over 1100 cases have been reported worldwide. A causal relationship between BIA-ALCL and textured implants has been established in epidemiological studies.
23 Feb 2023
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
Encyclopedia of Fungi
Luis V. Lopez-Llorca
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