Topic Review
Conservative Axillary Surgery in Breast Cancer
Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been performed to assess nodal status, prevent axillary recurrence, and possibly improve survival. However, the procedure has been associated with postoperative morbidities, including arm lymphedema, shoulder dysfunction, and paresthesia. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was introduced as an alternative approach to assess axillary nodal status and potentially eliminate the need for ALND in patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) breast cancer. Despite this progress, eliminating ALND for all breast cancer patients still seems premature at this time. Various forms of conservative axillary surgery have been developed to replace or supplement conventional ALND. Conservative axillary surgery may be promising in reducing the incidence of arm lymphedema without increasing the risk of axillary recurrence.
  • 120
  • 17 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Inflatable Video-Assisted Mediastinoscopic Transhiatal Esophagectomy of Esophageal Cancer
Inflatable video-assisted mediastinoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (IVMTE) has emerged as a promising treatment option for esophageal cancer because it does not require one-lung ventilation, reduces postoperative complications, and expands surgical indications. This technique also provides surgical opportunities for patients with impaired pulmonary function or thoracic lesions.
  • 236
  • 01 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Cytokine Gene Vaccine Therapy for Brain Tumor Treatment
A glioma is a malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Attempts at the surgical removal of the tumor are the first approach, but additional treatment strategies, including radiation therapy and systemic or local chemotherapy, are necessary. Furthermore, the treatments are often associated with significant adverse side effects. Normal and malignant cells generally have antigenic differences, and this is the rationale for clinical immunotherapeutic strategies. Cytokines such as IL-15 or IL-2, which stimulate an anti-tumor immune response, have been shown to have a particularly high potential for use in immunotherapy against various tumors.
  • 162
  • 01 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Technological Synergies in Cranial Base Surgery
The genesis of Anterior Skull Base (ASB) surgery as a distinct field is anchored in the innovations of the 1940s. Dandy’s instrumental contributions are emblematic of this era, particularly his surgical strategy via the anterior cranial fossa for the excision of orbital tumors and his subsequent expansion of the resection to incorporate the ethmoidal regions.
  • 236
  • 01 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Intraoperative Imaging in Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery
Hepatopancreatobiliary surgery belongs to one of the most complex fields of general surgery. An intricate and vital anatomy is accompanied by difficult distinctions of tumors from fibrosis and inflammation; the identification of precise tumor margins; or small, even disappearing, lesions on currently available imaging. The routine implementation of ultrasound use shifted the possibilities in the operating room, yet more precision is necessary to achieve negative resection margins. Modalities utilizing fluorescent-compatible dyes have proven their role in hepatopancreatobiliary surgery, although this is not yet a routine practice, as there are many limitations. Modalities, such as photoacoustic imaging or 3D holograms, are emerging but are mostly limited to preclinical settings. There is a need to identify and develop an ideal contrast agent capable of differentiating between malignant and benign tissue and to report on the prognostic benefits of implemented intraoperative imaging in order to navigate clinical translation.
  • 246
  • 23 Oct 2023
Topic Review
C-Arm-Free Minimally Invasive Technique for Spinal Surgery
C-arm-free MIS techniques can offer significantly reduced rates of postoperative complications such as inadequate decompression, blood loss, and instrumentation misplacement. Another advantageous long-term aspect is the notably diminished exposure to radiation, which is known to cause malignant changes. 
  • 346
  • 19 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Postoperative Delirium and Cognitive Dysfunction after Anesthesia
Perioperative disorders of neurocognitive function are a set of heterogeneous conditions, which include transient post-operative delirium (POD) and more prolonged post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). 
  • 136
  • 19 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with NAFLD
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has gained attention due to its increasing prevalence worldwide becoming a global epidemic. The increasing incidence of NAFLD and the concurrent increase in the number of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases at a global level is a matter of concern. HCC has several risk factors, of which NAFLD and its associated metabolic disturbances—type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia—are of great interest due to their accelerating rise in incidence worldwide. There is a high amount of data derived from basic and clinical studies that reveal the molecular pathways that drive NAFLD-associated HCC. Based on these findings, new prevention, surveillance, and treatment strategies are emerging. 
  • 217
  • 17 Oct 2023
Topic Review
3D Printing and Nanotechnologies in Biofilms
Biofilms remain one of the most pervasive complications of the medical field, representing 50–70% of all nosocomial infections and up to 80% of total microbial infections. Since biofilms contain intricately small matrices, different microenvironments, and accumulations of biodiverse microorganisms of different resistances, these structures end up being difficult to target.
  • 341
  • 08 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Endoscopic Salvage of Gastrointestinal Anastomosis Leaks
Anastomotic leakage, which is defined as a defect in the integrity of a surgical join between two hollow viscera leading to communication between the intraluminal and extraluminal compartments, continues to be of high incidence and one of the most feared complications following gastrointestinal surgery, with a significant potential for a fatal outcome. Surgical options for management are limited and carry a high risk of morbidity and mortality; thus, surgeons are urged to look for alternative options which are minimally invasive, repeatable, non-operative, and do not require general anesthesia. 
  • 128
  • 07 Oct 2023
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