Topic Review
Electromagnetic Microrobotic Platforms for Biomedical Applications
Magnetic microrobotics is a promising technology for improving minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with the ambition of enhancing patient care and comfort. The potential benefits include limited incisions, less hemorrhaging and postoperative pain, and faster recovery time. To achieve this, a key issue relies on the design of a proper electromagnetic actuation (EMA) setup which is based on the use of magnetic sources. The magnetic field and its gradient generated by the EMA platform is then used to induce magnetic torque and force for microrobot manipulations inside the human body. Like any control systems, the EMA system must be adapted to the given controlled microrobot and customized for the application. 
  • 703
  • 24 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Rectal Prolapse
Rectal prolapse is a condition that can cause significant social impairment and negatively affects quality of life. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with the aim of restoring the anatomy and correcting the associated functional disorders.
  • 702
  • 28 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Surgery
Augmented reality (AR) is an innovative system that enhances the real world by superimposing virtual objects on reality. The application of AR in image-guided surgery (IGS) can be an increasingly important opportunity for the treatment of patients. In particular, AR allows one to see 3D images projected directly onto patients thanks to the use of special displays.
  • 696
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Sodium Fluorescein on High-Grade Gliomas
High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common primary malignant brain cancer in adults. Complete surgical removal of HGG is known to increase the overall survival and progression-free survival. Fluorescence-guided surgery with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) increases gross total resection considerably compared to white light surgery (65% vs. 36%). Recently, an off-label fluorophore, sodium fluorescein (SF), has become popular in fluorescence-guided surgery due to numerous utility benefits compared to 5-ALA, including lower cost, non-toxicity, easy administration during surgery and a wide indication for other CNS tumors.
  • 676
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
The Bone Regeneration
Bone regeneration is a complex process that is influenced by tissue interactions, inflammatory responses, and progenitor cells.
  • 666
  • 13 May 2021
Topic Review
Liver Surgery
Major high-risk surgery (HRS) exposes patients to potential perioperative adverse events. Hepatic resection of colorectal metastases can surely be included into the HRS class of operations. Limiting such risks is the main target of the perioperative medicine.
  • 660
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Popliteal Bypass Surgery
Popliteal bypass surgery, more specifically known as femoral popliteal bypass surgery (FPB) or more generally as lower extremity bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure used to treat diseased leg arteries above or below the knee. It is used as a medical intervention to salvage limbs that are at risk of amputation and to improve walking ability in people with severe intermittent claudication (leg muscle pain) and ischemic rest pain. Popliteal bypass surgery is a common type of peripheral bypass surgery which carries blood from the femoral artery of the thigh to the end of the popliteal artery behind the knee. The femoral artery runs along the thigh and extends to become the popliteal artery which runs posteriorly to the knee joint and femur. Smaller arteries carry blood supply from the popliteal artery to the calf and into the foot. Blockages caused by plaque build-up or atherosclerosis in any of these arteries can reduce leg blood circulation, causing leg pain that may interfere with daily life. Standard Popliteal bypass surgery involves the bypass of the popliteal artery. During surgery, incisions are made depending on the location of the blockage. Usually, a healthy vein is located and sewn above and below the blockage to bypass the narrowed or blocked femoral artery. This allows the blood to be redirected to flow through the new healthy vessel around the blockage. In some cases, synthetic graft materials (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) are used instead of a vein graft.
  • 651
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Cystine and Theanine
Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide composed of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. It is one of the strongest antioxidants in the body and important for adjusting immune function. Cystine and theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) provide substrates of GSH, cysteine and glutamic acid, promoting the synthesis of GSH.
  • 642
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Treatment of Peritoneal Metastasis
Surgical and locoregional treatments of peritoneal metastasis have gained increasing acceptance. Apart from systemic chemotherapy and surgical removal of the tumor, locoregional therapies such as cytoreductive surgery (CRS)/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) or pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) may improve tumor control. 
  • 639
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
The Association of Gut Microbiota in Gastrointestinal-Cancer Therapies
The gut microbiome of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoes specific changes during different therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Likewise, complications of these therapies are associated with specific changes in the microbiome. 
  • 634
  • 02 Nov 2021
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