Topic Review
Zinc-Alpha2-Glycoprotein (AZGP1) and Fibrotic Kidney Disease
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a condition characterized by a gradual loss of kidney function over time. It is typically accompanied by progressive fibrosis of the tubulointerstitial compartment.
  • 94
  • 26 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Whole-Body Cryostimulation in Fibromyalgia
Currently, all available therapies for the control and management of fibromyalgia (FM) are mostly focused on relieving patients’ symptoms and improving their quality of life. Thermal stress caused by cryostimulation induces an analgesic effect, improving pain, redox balance, and inflammatory symptoms in an exercise-mimicking fashion. In addition, it reduces the feeling of fatigue, improves mood, and reduces mental health deterioration with positive consequences on depressive states and improved sleep quality. 
  • 98
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Virtual Reality in the Rehabilitation
Over the past two decades, virtual reality technology (VRT)-based rehabilitation has been increasingly examined and applied to assist patient recovery in the physical and cognitive domains. The advantages of the use of VRT in the neurorehabilitation field consist of the possibility of training an impaired function as a way to stimulate neuron reorganization (to maximize motor learning and neuroplasticity) and restoring and regaining functions and abilities by interacting with a safe and nonthreatening yet realistic virtual reality environment (VRE). Furthermore, VREs can be tailored to patient needs and provide personalized feedback on performance. VREs may also support cognitive training and increases patient motivation and enjoyment. Despite these potential advantages, there are inconclusive data about the usefulness of VRT in neurorehabilitation settings, and some issues on feasibility and safety remain to be ascertained for some neurological populations.
  • 146
  • 07 May 2021
Topic Review
Viral Vectors for Gene Delivery
Over the course of millions of years, viruses have evolved and adapted to changes in the biological environment which has allowed them to survive and replicate in host cells. Using this feature of viruses, gene therapy research has developed new approaches utilizing viruses and their different genomes as carriers and vectors for the delivery of genes, nucleic acids, and other genetic material to cell target sites.
  • 48
  • 24 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Viral Vaccine Platforms
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with decreased susceptibility to the neutralizing antibody responses induced by currently available COVID-19 vaccines raises the possibility of breakthrough infections. Thus, alternative or complementary approaches are needed to develop vaccines able to induce a lasting immunological response. In the case of global public health emergencies, governmental vaccine design can benefit from a range of platform technologies, including conventional vaccines such as inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines, the innovative new class of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines and promising protein-based vaccines. Compared with conventional vaccines, molecular-based platforms may offer a more versatile tool against new emergent viruses, allowing fast, low-cost, and scalable vaccine manufacturing. Essentially, these platforms rely on the use of a system to deliver and present a new antigen (or a synthetic gene) to rapidly target an emergent pathogen. Currently, there are four different platforms used to develop viral vaccines: whole virus, nucleic acid-based, viral vectors, and protein and virus-like particles (VLPs). The choice of platform takes into account many factors, including the way the immune system responds to the specific viral infection, vaccination strategies and policies, and the best technology or approach to create the specific vaccine.
  • 95
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
VEGF/VEGFR in tumour anti-angiogenic therapy
It is now known that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) play a pivotal role in angiogenesis process. Nowadays, the use of inhibitors of angiogenesis promoting factors is a powerful tool in anticancer combination therapeutic strategies, especially in cancer anti-angiogenic therapy (AAT).
  • 185
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Valorization of Grape by-products
The emergence of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria has limited the ability to treat bacterial infections, besides increasing their morbidity and mortality at the global scale. The need for alternative solutions to deal with this problem is urgent and has brought about a renewed interest in natural products as sources of potential antimicrobials. The wine industry is responsible for the production of vast amounts of waste and by-products, with associated environmental problems. These residues are rich in bioactive secondary metabolites, especially phenolic compounds. Some phenolics are bacteriostatic/bactericidal against several pathogenic bacteria and may have a synergistic action towards antibiotics, mitigating or reverting bacterial resistance to these drugs. Complex phenolic mixtures, such as those present in winemaking residues (pomace, skins, stalks, leaves, and especially seeds), are even more effective as antimicrobials and could be used in combined therapy, thereby contributing to management of the antibiotic resistance crisis. 
  • 166
  • 14 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Tumor Cell Signaling Pathways
Increasing the understanding of carcinogenesis has allowed the delineation of crucial signaling pathways, which have shown essential roles in the regulation of stem cell functions
  • 122
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Tumor Cell Infiltration into the Brain in Glioblastoma
Glioblastoma is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor, defined by its highly aggressive nature. Despite the advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques, and the development of novel therapies in the last decade, the prognosis for glioblastoma is still extremely poor. One major factor for the failure of existing therapeutic approaches is the highly invasive nature of glioblastomas. The extreme infiltrating capacity of tumor cells into the brain parenchyma makes complete surgical removal difficult; glioblastomas almost inevitably recur in a more therapy-resistant state, sometimes at distant sites in the brain. Therefore, there are major efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning glioblastoma invasion; however, there is no approved therapy directed against the invasive phenotype as of now.
  • 118
  • 07 Feb 2022
Topic Review
TRIMbody-Away Technique
TRIMbody-Away technique is a novel technology that could be utilized to acute and rapid destruction of specific intracellular proteins. This technology is based on a new type of fusion protein, designated as TRIMbody, by fusing the truncated form of tripartite motif 21 (TRIM21) with the nanobody. The truncated TRIM21 retained only the N-terminal RBCC domain and deleted the C-terminal PRY-SPRY domain. Therefore, TRIMbody possesses the functions of TRIM21 and mAbs, but has much smaller size. TRIMbody-Away technique could expand the landscape of the applications of degrader technologies and provide an alternative approach for potential therapeutic benefit in future.
  • 120
  • 25 Oct 2021
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