Topic Review
Mineral Deficiency
Mineral deficiency is a lack of the dietary minerals, the micronutrients that are needed for an organism's proper health. The cause may be a poor diet, impaired uptake of the minerals that are consumed, or a dysfunction in the organism's use of the mineral after it is absorbed. These deficiencies can result in many disorders including anemia and goitre. Examples of mineral deficiency include, zinc deficiency, iron deficiency, and magnesium deficiency.
  • 8
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Remission in Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease with a growing prevalence, associated with an increased risk of complications. The introduction of new classes of antidiabetic drugs into clinical practice has dramatically changed the landscape of diabetes therapy. However, despite the progress made in the pharmacotherapy of T2DM, mitigating the burden of the disease on individuals, societies and health care systems remains a challenge. Remission has emerged as a therapeutic target in T2DM, achievable through a wide range of interventions. Studies have shown that extensive lifestyle changes, such as weight reduction, bariatric surgery, and intensive glucose lowering therapy, can prompt the remission of diabetes, but some unanswered questions remain regarding its long-term effects on diabetic complications. Metabolic surgery and novel classes of glucose-lowering medications are the most effective interventions to induce weight loss and by extension remission in patients with diabetes.
  • 39
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
KRAS in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
In NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer), KRAS (Kirsten Rat sarcoma virus) mutations occur in up to 30% of all cases, most frequently at codon 12 and 13. KRAS mutations have been linked to adenocarcinoma histology, positive smoking history, and Caucasian ethnicity, although differences have been described across KRAS mutational variants subtypes. KRAS mutations often concur with other molecular alterations, notably TP53, STK11, and KEAP1, which could play an important role in treatment efficacy and patient outcomes.
  • 23
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Therapeutic Community
Therapeutic community is a participative, group-based approach to long-term mental illness, personality disorders and drug addiction. The approach was usually residential, with the clients and therapists living together, but increasingly residential units have been superseded by day units. It is based on milieu therapy principles, and includes group psychotherapy as well as practical activities. Therapeutic communities have gained some reputation for success in rehabilitation and patient satisfaction in Britain and abroad. In Britain, 'democratic analytic' therapeutic communities have tended to specialise in the treatment of moderate to severe personality disorders and complex emotional and interpersonal problems. The evolution of therapeutic communities in the United States has followed a different path with hierarchically arranged communities (or concept houses) specialising in the treatment of drug and alcohol dependence.
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Chiropractic
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine mostly concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine. Proponents claim that such disorders affect general health via the nervous system, through vertebral subluxation, claims which are demonstrably false. The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, especially spinal manipulation therapy (SMT), manipulations of other joints and soft tissues. Its foundation is at odds with mainstream medicine, and chiropractic is sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation and "innate intelligence" that reject science. Chiropractors are not medical doctors. Numerous controlled clinical studies of treatments used by chiropractors have been conducted, with conflicting results. Systematic reviews of this research have not found evidence that chiropractic manipulation is effective, with the possible exception of treatment for back pain. A critical evaluation found that collectively, spinal manipulation was ineffective at treating any condition. Spinal manipulation may be cost-effective for sub-acute or chronic low back pain but the results for acute low back pain were insufficient. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of maintenance chiropractic care are unknown. There is not sufficient data to establish the safety of chiropractic manipulations. It is frequently associated with mild to moderate adverse effects, with serious or fatal complications in rare cases. There is controversy regarding the degree of risk of vertebral artery dissection, which can lead to stroke and death, from cervical manipulation. Several deaths have been associated with this technique and it has been suggested that the relationship is causative, a claim which is disputed by many chiropractors. Chiropractic is well established in the United States, Canada, and Australia. It overlaps with other manual-therapy professions such as osteopathy and physical therapy. Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain. Back and neck pain are considered the specialties of chiropractic, but many chiropractors treat ailments other than musculoskeletal issues. Many chiropractors describe themselves as primary care providers, but the chiropractic clinical training does not support the requirements to be considered primary care providers, so their role on primary care is limited and disputed. Chiropractic has two main groups: "straights", now the minority, emphasize vitalism, "innate intelligence", and consider vertebral subluxations to be the cause of all disease; "mixers", the majority, are more open to mainstream views and conventional medical techniques, such as exercise, massage, and ice therapy. D. D. Palmer founded chiropractic in the 1890s, after saying he received it from "the other world", and his son B. J. Palmer helped to expand it in the early 20th century. Throughout its history, chiropractic has been controversial. Despite the overwhelming evidence that vaccination is an effective public health intervention, among chiropractors there are significant disagreements over the subject, which has led to negative impacts on both public vaccination and mainstream acceptance of chiropractic. The American Medical Association called chiropractic an "unscientific cult" in 1966 and boycotted it until losing an antitrust case in 1987. Chiropractic has had a strong political base and sustained demand for services; in recent decades, it has gained more legitimacy and greater acceptance among conventional physicians and health plans in the United States.
  • 9
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Hypoxia (Medical)
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Although hypoxia is often a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia and anoxemia in that hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient, whereas hypoxemia and anoxemia refer specifically to states that have low or zero arterial oxygen supply. Hypoxia in which there is complete deprivation of oxygen supply is referred to as anoxia. Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to potentially fatal complications: high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Hypoxia also occurs in healthy individuals when breathing mixtures of gases with a low oxygen content, e.g. while diving underwater especially when using closed-circuit rebreather systems that control the amount of oxygen in the supplied air. Mild, non-damaging intermittent hypoxia is used intentionally during altitude training to develop an athletic performance adaptation at both the systemic and cellular level. In acute or silent hypoxia, a person's oxygen level in blood cells and tissue can drop without any initial warning, even though the individual's chest x-ray shows diffuse pneumonia with an oxygen level below normal. Doctors report cases of silent hypoxia with COVID-19 patients who did not experience shortness of breath or coughing until their oxygen levels had plummeted to such a degree that the patients risked acute respiratory distress (ARDS) and organ failure. In a The New York Times opinion piece (April 20, 2020), emergency room doctor Richard Levitan reports: "A vast majority of Covid pneumonia patients I met had remarkably low oxygen saturations at triage—seemingly incompatible with life—but they were using their cellphones as we put them on monitors." Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants. Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung function, doctors frequently place infants at risk of hypoxia inside incubators (also known as humidicribs) that provide warmth, humidity, and oxygen. More serious cases are treated with CPAP. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza in recognition of their discovery of cellular mechanisms to sense and adapt to different oxygen concentrations, establishing a basis for how oxygen levels affect physiological function.
  • 11
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
Solution-focused (brief) therapy (SFBT) is a goal-directed collaborative approach to psychotherapeutic change that is conducted through direct observation of clients' responses to a series of precisely constructed questions. Based upon social constructionist thinking and Wittgensteinian philosophy, SFBT focuses on addressing what clients want to achieve without exploring the history and provenance of problem(s). SF therapy sessions typically focus on the present and future, focusing on the past only to the degree necessary for communicating empathy and accurate understanding of the client's concerns. SFBT is future-oriented and goal-oriented interviewing technique that helps clients "build solutions." Elliot Connie defines solution building as "a collaborative language process between the client(s) and the therapist that develops a detailed description of the client(s)' preferred future/goals and identifies exceptions and past successes". By doing so, SFBT focuses on clients' strengths and resilience.
  • 6
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Gallbladder Cancer Therapy
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common form of biliary tract cancer. It is characterized by unique pathogenetic and molecular features that differ from other biliary tract cancer forms (e.g., inflammation-based carcinogenesis and distinctive molecular alterations, strong association with female sex, and geographical clustering). Therefore, differentiated therapy is mandatory to improve patients’ outcome and survival, especially regarding characteristic molecular alterations that bare the opportunity for the use of new targeted therapeutics.
  • 10
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Bone Biochemical Immune Parameters in Marrow Immune Microenvironment
The bone marrow (BM), the major hematopoietic organ in humans, consists of a pleiomorphic environment of cellular, extracellular, and bioactive compounds with continuous and complex interactions between them, leading to the formation of mature blood cells found in the peripheral circulation. The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates normal hematopoiesis and exerts variable activity in various inflammatory, toxic, autoimmune, or neoplastic diseases and conditions. It has a major role in the pathogenesis of BM failure syndromes and particularly of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • 55
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy
Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) is a mind-body psychotherapy that is informed by research in the areas of attachment theory, emotion theory, and neuroscience of change. This model of psychotherapy incorporates techniques from experiential therapies (such as Gestalt therapy and person-centered therapy) and ISTDP. AEDP was initially developed as a psychotherapy to treat the effects of childhood attachment trauma and abuse. It is recognized as an effective treatment for complex post-traumatic stress disorder, and attachment disturbances in adults. It is further applied to the treatment of eating disorders, to the treatment considerations when working with diverse populations, to couples therapy, and to the treatment of dissociative disorders. AEDP is applied to the practice of psychotherapy supervision and to short-term psychotherapy.
  • 11
  • 24 Nov 2022
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