Topic Review
Efficient Pollination Technology of Crops
Pollination is essential to maintain ecosystem balance and agricultural production. Domesticated bee pollination, which is easy to feed and manage, and mechanized pollination, which is not restricted by the environment, are considered the main technical means to alleviate the “pollinating insect crisis”. The selection of pollination method should be based on the physiological characteristics of crops and the actual environmental conditions of natural pollination. The pollination ability of bees is closely related to the status of the bees. Maintaining the pollination ability of bees in a reasonable range is the goal of bee pollination services. Colony state control technology needs to develop in two directions. First, there is a need to develop colony state monitoring technology based on multi-feature information fusion and to explore the self-regulation mechanisms of the colony in response to various factors. Second, based on these self-regulation mechanisms, there is a need to develop a low-cost and non-invasive bee colony state and pollination capacity estimation model, monitoring technology, and equipment based on single feature information. The goals of mechanized pollination are “efficiency” and “precision”. Mechanized pollination technology needs to be developed in two directions. First, the mechanisms of pollen abscission, transport, and sedimentation in different crops and mechanized pollination conditions should be explored. Second, research and development of efficient and accurate pollination equipment and technology based on the integration of multiple technologies such as pneumatic assistance, auxiliaries, static electricity, target, variables, and navigation, are needed.
  • 14
  • 07 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Land Use Land Cover Modeling
Land use land cover (LULC) modeling is considered as the best tool to comprehend and unravel the dynamics of future urban expansion.
  • 15
  • 06 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Fundamentals of Precision Agriculture
Precision agriculture or precision farming is the targeted application of crop input according to the locally determined crop needs. Therefore, it is the geo-referenced application of crop inputs, whose rates should be those required by the crop. The most essential points of information about the topic being described are: overview; brief history of precision agriculture; theoretical basics of precision agriculture; precision agriculture cycle; geo-referenced measurement of within-field parameters; analysis and interpretation of geo-referenced data for mapping within-field parameters; spatially variable rate application of crop inputs; instruments for precision agriculture; current scenario of precision agriculture; current scenario of precision viticulture; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and differential correction technique; proximal sensors of within-field soil and crop parameters; remote sensing from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and satellites; devices for setting up and controlling spatially variable rate crop input application; assisted guidance systems of agricultural machines; perspectives of precision agriculture.
  • 102
  • 04 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Flavonoid Production in Plant Metabolic Engineering
Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that represent a heterogeneous family of plant polyphenolic compounds. The research has determined that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables, as well as the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants, are based on the presence of various bioactive natural products, including a high proportion of flavonoids. In plant metabolite research, flavonoids have become the center of attention due to their significant bioactivity associated with anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial activities.
  • 33
  • 31 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Fresh Fruit Bunch Ripeness Evaluation Methods
There are two types of methods to analyse the ripeness of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs), destructive methods and nondestructive methods. The destructive methods require physical contact in ways that affect the integrity of the FFBs and severely reduce the amount of oil that can be extracted from the tested FFBs. Meanwhile, the nondestructive techniques can involve noncontact features that are either visual or nonvisual. Nonvisual methods include using physicochemical, electrical, magnetic, and electromagnetic properties to determine fruit maturity such as fluorescence sensor, microwave sensor, inductive sensor, and thermal sensor. However, most nondestructive methods are visual, in which the selected sensor can evaluate through the morphology, colour, and other physical characteristics of the fruit to identify their maturity stages through the analysis of specific modalities such as colour vision, light detection and ranging, spectral image, and near-infrared spectroscopy.
  • 34
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Sustainable Desert Agriculture Systems with Saline Groundwater Irrigation
Agricultural land expansion is a solution to address global food security challenges in the context of climate change. However, the sustainability of expansion in arid countries is difficult because of scarce surface water resources, groundwater salinity, and the health of salt-affected soil. Developing expansion and sustainability plans for agriculture requires systems thinking, considering the complex feedback interactions between saline groundwater, salt-affected soil, plant growth, freshwater mixing with saline groundwater, irrigation systems, and the application of soil amendments to alleviate the salinity impacts.
  • 30
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Agricultural Drainage
Practicing agricultural drainage strategies is necessary to manage excess water in poorly drained irrigated farmlands to protect them from induced waterlogging and salinity problems. 
  • 65
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Non-Destructive Quality-Detection Techniques for Cereal Grains
Grain quality involves the appearance, nutritional, and safety attributes of grains. With the improvement of people’s living standards, problems pertaining to the quality of grains have received greater attention. Modern quality detection techniques feature unique advantages including rapidness, non-destructiveness, accuracy, and efficiency in detecting grain quality.
  • 76
  • 09 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Machine Vision Techniques in Agriculture
Introducing machine vision-based automation to the agricultural sector is essential to meet the food demand of a rapidly growing population. Furthermore, extensive labor and time are required in agriculture; hence, agriculture automation is a major concern and an emerging subject. Machine vision-based automation can improve productivity and quality by reducing errors and adding flexibility to the work process. Primarily, machine vision technology has been used to develop crop production systems by detecting stresses and diseases more efficiently.
  • 59
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Indonesia Rice Irrigation System
Indonesia is likely to face a water crisis due to mismanagement of water resources, inefficient water systems, and weak institutions and regulatory organizations. In 2020, most of the fresh water in Indonesia was used for irrigation (74%) to support the agricultural sector, which occupies 30% of the total land area in Indonesia. Of all agricultural commodities, rice is one of the major and essential commodities, as it is the basic staple food for almost every Indonesian. However, in 2018, the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MoPWH) reported that 46% of Indonesian irrigation infrastructure is moderately to heavily damaged. Aside from how climate change influences water availability for irrigation, rice production with a constant water ponding system has been found to contribute to climate change, as it emits methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gases from agricultural fields of Indonesia. Therefore, the required modernization of irrigation systems in Indonesia needs to consider several factors, such as food demands for the increasing population and the impact of irrigated agriculture on global warming. Multi-stakeholders, such as the government, farmers, water user associations (WUA), and local research institutions, need to work together on the modernization of irrigation systems in Indonesia to meet the increasing food demands of the growing population and to minimize the impacts of agriculture on climate change.
  • 70
  • 29 Dec 2022
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