Topic Review
Bonded Marine Hoses for Floating Offshore Structures (FOS)
By characterisation, a marine hose is a unique type of flexible riser used in fluid transfer. By definition, a marine hose is simply a fluid transfer conduit utilised in transferring, discharging, loading, and transporting fluids from an oil well to the platform of a floating platform or a floating structure. The fluid transfer system for bonded marine hoses is dependent on floating offshore structures (FOS). Single Point Mooring (SPM) systems are component aspects of the techno-economic design and FOS operation.
  • 713
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalyst Regeneration Intensification Technologies
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the workhorse of modern crude oil refinery. Its regenerator component plays a critical role in optimizing the overall profitability by efficiently restoring the catalyst activity and enhancing the heat balance in the riser reactor. Improvement in the device metallurgy and process operations have enabled industrial regenerators to operate at high temperatures with a better coke burning rate and longer operating cycle. Today, the carbon content of regenerated catalyst has drastically reduced to less than 0.1 wt.%.
  • 427
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
EOR's Significance in Emission Reduction
Limiting the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, and at the same time, meeting the increased energy demand can be achieved by applying carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, which hold potential as the bridge for energy and emission-intensive industries to decarbonization goals. At the moment, the only profitable industrial large-scale carbon sequestration projects are large-scale carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) projects. This paper gives a general overview of the indirect and direct use of captured CO2 in CCUS with a special focus on worldwide large-scale CO2-EOR projects. On the basis of scientific papers and technical reports, data from 23 contemporary large-scale CO2-EOR projects in different project stages were aggregated, pointing out all the specificities of the projects. The specificities of individual projects, along with the lack of standardized methodologies specific for estimating the full lifecycle emissions resulting from CO2-EOR projects, pose a challenge and contribute to uncertainties and wide flexibilities when estimating emissions from CO2-EOR projects, making the cross-referencing of CO2-EOR projects and its comparison to other climate-mitigation strategies rather difficult. Pointing out the mentioned project’s differentiations and aggregating data on the basis of an overview of large-scale CO2-EOR projects gives useful information for future work on the topic of a CO2-EOR project’s lifecycle emissions.
  • 181
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Waste Plastic Thermal Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis is one of the most popular thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) methods known today. This is due to their immense impacts on the environment and their operational output. The significant role of pyrolysis with waste plastics as feedstock is trending. Most of these waste plastics which include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS), have continued to render our environment, our health and oceans in deplorable conditions. This entry presents an assurance into the current findings of waste plastic thermal pyrolysis (WPTP) and revealed some common research gaps and misconceptions surrounding this field. 
  • 174
  • 04 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils
Due to the development of the petroleum industrial, numerous petroleum pollutants are discharged into the soil, destroying the structure and properties of the soil, and even endangering the health of plants and humans. Microbial remediation and combined microbial methods remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil are currently recognized remediation technologies, which have the advantages of no secondary pollution, low cost and convenient operation. This entry includes the sources and composition of petroleum pollutants and their harm to soil, plants and humans. Subsequently, the focus is on the mechanism of microbial method and combined microbial methods to degrade petroleum pollutants. Finally, the challenges of the current combined microbial methods are pointed out.
  • 134
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Logistic Handling of Deliveries at an LNG Terminal
LNG is a gas mixture of hydrocarbons in the following proportions: methane 87–99 mol%, ethane 0.1–5.5 mol%, propane 0–4 mol%, butane 0–2.5 mol%, nitrogen 0.02–1 mol%, and traces of sulfur (less than four ppmv) and CO2 (50 ppmv). There has been growing interest in fuel supply chains regarding transport safety and LNG reloading. This is due to the increasing consumption of this gas in the economy to create sustainable transport systems. Poland is in the phase of energy transformation, which increases the demand for this type of alternative fuel. For this reason, the number of logistic operations carried out by Polish sea terminals handling LNG deliveries is increasing.
  • 105
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
Design Considerations of Fixed and Floating Offshore Structures
Offshore structures exist in a variety of forms, and they are used for a variety of functions in varied sea depths. These structures are tailored for certain environments and sea depths and other design considerations. 
  • 98
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
CO2 Pipeline: Accidental Releases Modeling
Carbon capture use and storage (CCUS) is considered an effective mitigation strategy to reduce the most challenging emissions from heavy industries and gas processing. The safe transport of carbon dioxide via pipelines is an important aspect for developing large-scale Carbon Capture and Storage projects. Dispersion modeling for heavy gas such as carbon dioxide is considerably different from natural gas. The set up for modeling simulations is more challenging than conventional natural gas pipeline for several reasons, such as the differences in thermodynamics that must be considered. Moreover, when the carbon dioxide is transported in dense or liquid phase, the rapid phase changing, and possible consequent formation of solids should be considered. Finally, the equation of state required for accurate prediction of parameters is generally different than the ones applicable for natural gas.
  • 92
  • 27 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Technological and Legislative Impacts on Automotive Sector Development
Land transport activities play an essential role within our society. At the same time, these activities generate directly huge amounts of pollutants due to vehicle operation, and indirectly, more pollution due to vehicle production and recycling as well as a significant consumption of energetic resources and raw materials. Looking back into the cars history, one can notice how their technological development was correlated with the socio-economic, environmental, and health context, and has paved the way for new policies and strategies for exploiting the available energy sources and materials with respect to the current automotive regulations.
  • 92
  • 22 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Date-Leaf Carbon Particles for Green Enhanced Oil Recovery
Carbon nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotube (CNT), and carbon dots have gained interest for their superior ability to increase oil recovery. These particles have been successfully tested in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), although they are expensive and do not extend to green enhanced oil recovery (GEOR).
  • 81
  • 21 Apr 2022
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