Topic Review
β-Glucosidase in Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in Panax ginseng
Ginsenosides are a group of bioactive compounds isolated from Panax ginseng. Conventional major ginsenosides have a long history of use in traditional medicine for both illness prevention and therapy. Bioconversion processes have the potential to create new and valuable products in pharmaceutical and biological activities, making them both critical for research and highly economic to implement. This has led to an increase in the number of studies that use major ginsenosides as a precursor to generate minor ones using β-glucosidase. Minor ginsenosides may also have useful properties but are difficult to isolate from raw ginseng because of their scarcity. Bioconversion processes have the potential to create novel minor ginsenosides from the more abundant major ginsenoside precursors in a cost-effective manner. While numerous bioconversion techniques have been developed, an increasing number of studies have reported that β-glucosidase can effectively and specifically generate minor ginsenosides. 
  • 213
  • 11 May 2023
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
β-Glucans
β-glucans are complex polysaccharides that are found in several plants and foods, including mushrooms. β-glucans display an array of potentially therapeutic properties.
  • 894
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
β-glucan in Dairy and Milk-Based Products
β-glucan is a polysaccharide found naturally in the cell walls of cereals, yeasts, seaweeds, bacteria, and fungi. The physicochemical, functional, and technological properties of β-glucan are extremely different, depending on the source of origin. This polysaccharide is used in the therapeutic, cosmetic, fitness, and professional sports fields. Interest in β-glucan has arisen because it is a powerful immunostimulant, prebiotic, and dietary fiber. Interest in the use of β-glucan in the food industry is associated not only with its positive impact on the health of consumers but also with its functional and technological properties, which significantly improve the consumer characteristics of food products. The use of oat β-glucan in the food industry became possible when the EFSA confirmed in 2010 that the daily consumption of oat β-glucan in the amount of 3 g can reduce the risk of coronary disease and have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system, provided that a diet with low saturated fat content is followed. β-glucan made from yeast has been recognized as a novel ingredient and authorized for release since 2011.
  • 602
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
β-Glucan
β-glucans are complex polysaccharides that are found in several plants and foods, including mushrooms. β-glucans display an array of potentially therapeutic properties. 
  • 2.1K
  • 07 Feb 2021
Topic Review
β-Endorphin
β-Endorphins are peptides that exert a wide variety of effects throughout the body. Produced through the cleavage pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), β-endorphins are the primarily agonist of mu opioid receptors, which can be found throughout the body, brain, and cells of the immune system that regulate a diverse set of systems. As an agonist of the body’s opioid receptors, β-endorphins are most noted for their potent analgesic effects, but they also have their involvement in reward-centric and homeostasis-restoring behaviors, among other effects. These effects have implicated the peptide in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, making it a research target of interest.
  • 1.3K
  • 16 Apr 2021
Topic Review
β-Defensin in Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Most defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum killing activity against bacteria, fungi and enveloped viruses. However, it should be recognized that there are some non-cationic β-defensins in organisms, which need to be further studied. In this study, a new spliced isoform of anionic β-defensin from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus, fBD) was identified, and its antibiosis, chemotaxis and modulation of phagocytosis were examined. In addition, the contributions of fBD to the antimicrobial activity of extracellular traps (ETs) were also analyzed. The recombinant fBD (rfBD) could effectively inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum).
  • 342
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
β-Cyclocitral Marked as Bioactive Compound in Plants
β-cyclocitral (βCC), a main apocarotenoid of β-carotene, increases plants’ resistance against stresses. It has recently appeared as a novel bioactive composite in a variety of organisms from plants to animals. In plants, βCC marked as stress signals that accrue under adverse ecological conditions. βCC regulates nuclear gene expression through several signaling pathways, leading to stress tolerance. 
  • 601
  • 01 Nov 2022
Topic Review
β-Cell Regeneration
β-cell number and/or function is reduced in diabetes. Thus, inducing the formation of new β-cells has been a major goal of diabetes research. However, the pathway(s) by which new β-cells form when preexisting β-cells are decreased in number or cease to function has remained obscure. Many pathways have been proposed, but definitive evidence, particularly in humans, has been lacking. Replication of preexisting β-cells, neogenesis from ducts, redifferentiation from β-cells that dedifferentiated under metabolic stress, and transdifferentiation from other cell types, particularly within the islet, are the major mechanisms that have been proposed for generating increased numbers of functional β-cells. 
  • 319
  • 14 Mar 2022
Topic Review
β-Carotene within Loaded Delivery Systems in Food
Nanotechnology has opened new opportunities for delivering bioactive agents. Their physiochemical characteristics, i.e., small size, high surface area, unique composition, biocompatibility and biodegradability, make these nanomaterials an attractive tool for β-carotene delivery. Delivering β-carotene through nanoparticles does not only improve its bioavailability/bioaccumulation in target tissues, but also lessens its sensitivity against environmental factors during processing. Regardless of these benefits, nanocarriers have some limitations, such as variations in sensory quality, modification of the food matrix, increasing costs, as well as limited consumer acceptance and regulatory challenges.
  • 476
  • 11 May 2022
Topic Review
β-Carotene within Loaded Delivery Systems
Nanotechnology has opened new opportunities for delivering bioactive agents. Their physiochemical characteristics, i.e., small size, high surface area, unique composition, biocompatibility and biodegradability, make these nanomaterials an attractive tool for β-carotene delivery. Delivering β-carotene through nanoparticles does not only improve its bioavailability/bioaccumulation in target tissues, but also lessens its sensitivity against environmental factors during processing. Regardless of these benefits, nanocarriers have some limitations, such as variations in sensory quality, modification of the food matrix, increasing costs, as well as limited consumer acceptance and regulatory challenges. This research area has rapidly evolved, with a plethora of innovative nanoengineered materials now being in use, including micelles, nano/microemulsions, liposomes, niosomes, solidlipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipids and nanostructured carriers. These nanodelivery systems make conventional delivery systems appear archaic and promise better solubilization, protection during processing, improved shelf-life, higher bioavailability as well as controlled and targeted release. 
  • 360
  • 23 Mar 2021
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