Topic Review
Silver-Containing Solutions for Deep Caries Management
Silver is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that can be used for caries management. Dentists used silver-containing solutions for deep cavity disinfection before restoration. Silver fluoride, silver nitrate, silver diamine nitrate, silver diamine fluoride, and nano-silver fluoride were used in deep cavities for antimicrobial purposes. Indirect silver fluoride application induced pulp inflammation and reparative dentine in most cases, and pulp necrosis in some cases. Direct silver nitrate application caused blood clots and a wide inflammatory band in the pulp, whilst indirect silver nitrate application caused hypoplasia in shallow cavities and partial pulp necrosis in deep cavities. Direct silver diamine fluoride application induced pulp necrosis, while indirect silver diamine fluoride application induced a mild inflammatory response and reparative dentine formation.
  • 18
  • 12 May 2023
Topic Review
Matrix Metalloproteinases and Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are progressive degenerative disorders that affect the components of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), characterized by pain and limitations in function. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are enzymes involved in physiological breakdown of tissue that can have a pathological effect from an increase in activity during inflammation.
  • 115
  • 06 May 2023
Topic Review
Complete-Arch Implant-Supported Fixed Monolithic Zirconia Restorations
In full-arch rehabilitation with implant-supported fixed prostheses, using monolithic zirconia seems to have several advantages regarding function and esthetics. However, the current scientific evidence is still limited.
  • 38
  • 06 May 2023
Topic Review
3D Printing of Dental Prostheses
Revolutionary fabrication technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) printing to develop dental structures are expected to replace traditional methods due to their ability to establish constructs with the required mechanical properties and detailed structures. Three-dimensional printing, as an additive manufacturing approach, has the potential to rapidly fabricate complex dental prostheses by employing a bottom-up strategy in a layer-by-layer fashion. This new technology allows dentists to extend their degree of freedom in selecting, creating, and performing the required treatments. Three-dimensional printing has been narrowly employed in the fabrication of various kinds of prostheses and implants. There is still an on-demand production procedure that offers a reasonable method with superior efficiency to engineer multifaceted dental constructs. 
  • 71
  • 05 May 2023
Topic Review
Plant-Derived Exosome-like Nanoparticle as Biomolecules
Plant-derived exosome-like nanoparticles (PDENs) comprise various bioactive biomolecules. As an alternative cell-free therapeutic approach, they have the potential to deliver nano-bioactive compounds to the human body, and thus lead to various anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor benefits.
  • 78
  • 04 May 2023
Topic Review
Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia
Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) is a pathology most commonly present in one side of the mandible, characterized by an abnormal condylar process of progressive overgrowth in time, causing visible changes in the anatomy, shape, and size of condylar head and neck elongation, along with visible facial asymmetry features.
  • 33
  • 28 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Biomarkers from Peri-Implant Crevicular Fluid
Some inflammatory biomarkers harvested from peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) (collagenase-2, collagenase-3, ALP, EA, gelatinase b, NTx, procalcitonin, IL-1β, and several miRNAs) seem to be correlated with peri-implant bone loss (BL) and may assist in the early diagnosis of pathological BL, that characterizes peri-implantitis. MiRNA expression demonstrated a predictive potential of peri-implant BL that could be useful for host-targeted preventive and therapeutic purposes. PICF sampling may represent a promising, noninvasive, and repeatable form of liquid biopsy in implant dentistry.
  • 46
  • 27 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Association between T1DM and Periodontal Diseases
Gingivitis and periodontitis are chronic inflammatory diseases that affect the supporting tissues of the teeth. Although induced by the presence of bacterial biofilms, other factor, such as tobacco smoking, drugs, and various systemic diseases, are known to influence their pathogenesis. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases correspond to inflammatory diseases that have pathogenic mechanisms in common, with the involvement of pro-inflammatory mediators. There seems to be an association between periodontal disease (PD) and Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), and the prevalence and severity of PD was higher in DM1 patients when compared to healthy controls.
  • 98
  • 24 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Cellular Metabolism in Dentine-Pulp Complex
The cellular metabolic processes ensure the physiological integrity of the dentine-pulp complex. Odontoblasts and odontoblast-like cells are responsible for the defence mechanisms in the form of tertiary dentine formation. In turn, the main defence reaction of the pulp is the development of inflammation, during which the metabolic and signalling pathways of the cells are significantly altered.
  • 43
  • 23 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Photobiomodulation with Laser Technology in Fixed Orthodontic Treatment
Despite the growing demand for improving smile aesthetics and occlusal functionality, a significant percentage of patients still refuse or discontinue orthodontic treatment because of pain and discomfort related to this therapy. As consequence, controlling the pain experienced by patients during the same therapy represents a primary concern for both patients and clinicians. Pieces of evidence have suggested that photobiomodulation can reduce pain experienced by patients during the decrowding stage or during specific protocols, for example, rapid maxillary expansion. PBM can be performed with lasers and also with a light-emitting diode (LED) device. 
  • 57
  • 23 Apr 2023
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