Topic Review
Strength Parameters of Composite Cements and Storage Temperature
Fixed restorations are now among the most common restorations in modern dental prosthodontics. The view in prosthodontics of maximum preparation economy is causing an increased interest in the mechanical properties of cements. Among the most important properties of materials used for indirect cementation are mechanical properties, i.e., hardness and compressive strength. These properties can change as a result of changes in physical factors. Some studies indicated that mechanical properties, such as flexural strength, polymerization shrinkage, and conversion factor, did not change after heating the composite material. According to some researchers, preheating the composite material increased its conversion degree, which consequently led to an increase in hardness and fracture toughness, an increase in flexural strength and an increase in elastic modulus, and an increase in abrasion resistance.
  • 51
  • 17 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Guided Endodontic Surgery
Endodontic surgery has evolved over the past. The use of state-of-the-art guided endodontic surgical procedures produces a predictable outcome in the healing of lesions of endodontic origin. Surgical-guided endodontics is a relatively new area of study that is still maturing. It has many applications such as root canal access and localization, microsurgical endodontics, endodontic retreatment, and glass fiber post removal. Additionally, it does not matter how experienced the operator is; the procedure can be completed for the patient in less time and provides greater accuracy and safety than conventional endodontics.
  • 61
  • 14 Apr 2023
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Laser-Assisted Non-Surgical Treatments of Periodontitis
This entry explores the innovative use of lasers in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis, shedding light on the advantages, effectiveness, and limitations of this approach. There has been a massive eruption of innovations and technologies to assist in the treatment of periodontal diseases over the past 30 years. The use of lasers has opened new horizons and possibilities that can enhance periodontal treatments. However, their use is not always based on validated concepts and evidence-based protocols. Hence, this entry aims to describe, summarize, and assess the available evidence on the current laser-assisted protocols in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis. Four distinct laser-assisted approaches are addressed: (1) the use of lasers for the removal of subgingival calculus, (2) the use of lasers in photodynamic therapy/photoactivated disinfection, (3) the use of lasers in photobiomodulation therapy, and (4) the use of high-power lasers. Based on the available studies and on the current guidelines and recommendations, the use of lasers exhibits several advantages, such as the increased disinfection of periodontal pockets and the junctional epithelium and connective tissue, the removal of calculus and biofilm, and the bactericidal effect on periodontal pathogens. Moreover, photobiomodulation therapy seems to play a positive role in the management of the inflammatory process of periodontitis. Although promising, the use of lasers in the non-surgical treatment of periodontitis needs to be further investigated.
  • 208
  • 11 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Amelioration Strategies for Silver Diamine Fluoride
Topical cariostatic agents have become a reasonable alternative for managing dental caries in young children. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is a practical topical approach to arrest caries and avoid extensive and risky dental treatment. The rapid oxidation of ionic silver darkens demineralised tooth structure permanently. In this regard, nano-metallic antimicrobials could augment or substitute for silver, and thereby enhance SDF aesthetic performance.
  • 117
  • 07 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Ceramic Materials for Biomedical Applications
The word “biomaterial” refers to a substance or a mix of materials of synthetic or natural origin interacting with biological systems. The main purpose of biomaterials is to support the healing or replacement of an organ in a human body that has been altered by a disease or an accidental event and to successfully restore function and sometimes aesthetic features without endangering human life. Biomaterials can be classified according to their chemical nature as metallic, polymeric, ceramic, and composite, and can also be biologically derived. The term “ceramic” (from the Greek word κεραμικό: “keramikò,” which means “burnt stuff”), a word that is also found in ancient texts, indicates any heat-treated material derived from clayey raw materials through a process called firing. Generally speaking, ceramics are inorganic materials consisting of metallic and non-metallic components chemically bonded together by means of ionic or prevalently ionic bonds with a variable degree of covalent character. 
  • 200
  • 07 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Periodontitis is characterized by a complex inflammatory response triggered by the presence of a dental biofilm. This bacterial biofilm is able to elicit a dysbiosis in the subgingival microbiome leading to the destruction of the periodontal supporting tissues and eventually tooth loss.
  • 571
  • 05 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Sedatives in Dental Implant Surgery
Implant surgery is a lengthy dental procedure, and sedation is often used to reduce discomfort. The effectiveness of sedation has traditionally been evaluated in terms of patient and surgeon satisfaction, but the most important goal is not to induce a deep sleep in the patient, but rather to ensure that the surgery is performed safely and as planned. Additionally, adequate pain control is a necessary requirement for patient and surgeon satisfaction. Most patients undergoing implant surgery are middle-aged or older, and a relatively large number of them have cardiovascular disease. Infiltration anesthesia using articaine or lidocaine in combination with adrenaline is widely used, but its use in patients with cardiovascular disease is limited because of adrenaline’s effects on the cardiovascular system. The use of long-acting local anesthetics and the potential efficacy of ultrasound-guided jaw nerve block have been investigated to enhance analgesia without resorting to adrenaline. Midazolam and propofol are usually used for sedation, but dexmedetomidine, which causes less respiratory depression, and the ultrashort-acting benzodiazepine remimazolam are emerging as potential alternatives. Monitoring of anesthetic depth using electroencephalography is effective in maintaining a constant level of sedation. In addition, sedation promotes the stabilization of heart rate and blood pressure, reducing the risks associated with adrenaline and allowing for safer management.
  • 53
  • 31 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Local and Systemic Effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobe, is a leading etiological agent in periodontitis. This infectious pathogen can induce a dysbiotic, proinflammatory state within the oral cavity by disrupting commensal interactions between the host and oral microbiota. It is advantageous for P. gingivalis to avoid complete host immunosuppression, as inflammation-induced tissue damage provides essential nutrients necessary for robust bacterial proliferation. When it gains access to circulation, P. gingivalis is able to infect a variety of cells, further triggering a variety of inflammatory and hemostatic responses. Among these is the activation of platelets and neutrophils. Neutrophil responses to P. gingivalis, particularly in the presence of activated platelets, include the release of strongly thrombogenic extracellular DNA traps (NETs). Consequently, this pathogen has the capacity not only to promote localized tissue destructiion of the gums but may also trigger some thromboinflammatory processes.
  • 125
  • 24 Mar 2023
Topic Review
CAD/CAM Denture Base Materials
The data about bond strength between digitally produced denture base resins and artificial teeth are scarce. No statistical differences between heat-polymerized and CAD/CAM (milled) denture base materials when attached with different types of artificial teeth, while one study showed higher values of CAD/CAM (milled) denture base materials. Bonding agents ensure bonding strength at least similar to the conventional methods. In order to improve the quality of future studies, it would be advantageous to use a larger number of specimens with standardized dimensions and a blinded testing machine operator to decrease the risk of bias.
  • 49
  • 23 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Systemic Impact of Periodontitis
Periodontitis is a microbially driven host-mediated disease that leads to loss of periodontal attachment and bone. It is associated with elevation of systemic inflammatory markers and with the presence of systemic co-morbidities. Furthermore, periodontal treatment leads to a 24–48 h-long acute local and systemic inflammatory response.
  • 62
  • 21 Mar 2023
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