Topic Review
Role of Charity Societies in Recycling Clothing Waste
Clothing waste is one of the key wastes that societies discard in general, the Saudi society in particular. This increases environmental and visual pollution if necessary measures are not taken to reduce these pollutants. 
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  • 07 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Luso-Flemish Master of Lourinhã
The Master of Lourinhã masterpieces are the best that Renaissance painting produced in Portugal during the governance of King D. Manuel I, in the Luso-Flemish period. The paintings were commissioned c. 1515 by Queen D. Maria, second wife of King D. Manuel I. Its underdrawing, the fineness of the landscapes and the transparency of chromatic material, reveal the talent of a great flemish artist following Bruges and Antuerpian models.
  • 858
  • 30 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Kindness in Health Center
The healthcare workplace is a high-stress environment. All stakeholders, including patients and providers, display evidence of that stress. High stress has several effects. Even acutely, stress can negatively affect cognitive function, worsening diagnostic acumen, decision-making, and problem-solving. It decreases helpfulness. As stress increases, it can progress to burnout and more severe mental health consequences, including depression and suicide. One of the consequences (and causes) of stress is incivility. Both patients and staff can manifest these unkind behaviors, which in turn have been shown to cause medical errors. The human cost of errors is enormous, reflected in thousands of lives impacted every year. The economic cost is also enormous, costing at least several billion dollars annually in the US alone. The warrant for promoting kindness, therefore, is enormous. Kindness creates positive interpersonal connections, which, in turn, buffers stress and fosters resilience. Kindness, therefore, is not just a nice thing to do: it is critically important in the workplace. Ways to promote kindness, including leadership modeling positive behaviors as well as the deterrence of negative behaviors, are essential.
  • 281
  • 13 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Identification and Extraction of Microplastics
Microplastics (MPs) are plastic wastes with particulates less than 5 mm in size that are absorbed by sediment, water, the atmosphere, and living beings before affecting health.
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  • 12 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Proximal Sensing
Proximal sensing techniques denote several non-invasive technologies in which the target objects—in the present context, cultural heritage manufacts—are placed within a short distance of the sensor, detector or camera lens collecting the data. Depending on the technology employed and the study purpose, the sensors/detectors work in different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-ray to ultraviolet (UV), from visible (VIS) to infrared (IR) and, further, from microwave to radio.
  • 610
  • 02 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Physical Body
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space. In common usage, an object is a collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in 3-dimensional space. The boundary must be defined and identified by the properties of the material. The boundary may change over time. The boundary is usually the visible or tangible surface of the object. The matter in the object is constrained (to a greater or lesser degree) to move as one object. The boundary may move in space relative to other objects that it is not attached to (through translation and rotation). An object's boundary may also deform and change over time in other ways. Also in common usage, an object is not constrained to consist of the same collection of matter. Atoms or parts of an object may change over time. An object is defined by the simplest representation of the boundary consistent with the observations. However the laws of Physics only apply directly to objects that consist of the same collection of matter. Each object has a unique identity, independent of any other properties. Two objects may be identical, in all properties except position, but still remain distinguishable. In most cases the boundaries of two objects may not overlap at any point in time. The property of identity allows objects to be counted. Examples of models of physical bodies include, but are not limited to a particle, several interacting smaller bodies (particles or other), and continuous media. The common conception of physical objects includes that they have extension in the physical world, although there do exist theories of quantum physics and cosmology which may challenge this. In modern physics, "extension" is understood in terms of the spacetime: roughly speaking, it means that for a given moment of time the body has some location in the space, although not necessarily a point. A physical body as a whole is assumed to have such quantitative properties as mass, momentum, electric charge, other conserving quantities, and possibly other quantities. A body with known composition and described in an adequate physical theory is an example of physical system.
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  • 12 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Bhartrhari's Paradox
Bhartṛhari (Devanagari: भर्तृहरि; also romanised as Bhartrihari; fl. c. 5th century CE) is a Sanskrit writer to whom are normally ascribed two influential Sanskrit texts: In the medieval tradition of Indian scholarship, it was assumed that both texts were written by the same person. Modern philologists were sceptical of this claim, owing to an argument that dated the grammar to a date subsequent to the poetry. Since the 1990s, however, scholars have agreed that both works may indeed have been contemporary, in which case it is plausible that there was only one Bhartrihari who wrote both texts. Both the grammar and the poetic works had an enormous influence in their respective fields. The grammar in particular, takes a holistic view of language, countering the compositionality position of the Mimamsakas and others. The poetry constitute short verses, collected into three centuries of about a hundred poems each. Each century deals with a different rasa or aesthetic mood; on the whole his poetic work has been very highly regarded both within the tradition and by modern scholarship. The name Bhartrihari is also sometimes associated with Bhartrihari traya Shataka, the legendary king of Ujjaini in the 1st century.
  • 555
  • 08 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj (1888–1936) was a guru in the Inchagiri Sampradaya founded by his guru Bhausaheb Maharaj, a branch of the Navnath Sampradaya, the 'Nine Masters' tradition in India. His disciples included Nath teachers Nisargadatta Maharaj, Ranjit Maharaj, Kaadsiddheshwar, and Ganapatrao Maharaj Kannur.
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  • 08 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The Foundations of Arithmetic
The Foundations of Arithmetic (German: Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik) is a book by Gottlob Frege, published in 1884, which investigates the philosophical foundations of arithmetic. Frege refutes other theories of number and develops his own theory of numbers. The Grundlagen also helped to motivate Frege's later works in logicism. The book was not well received and was not read widely when it was published. It did, however, draw the attentions of Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein, who were both heavily influenced by Frege's philosophy. An English translation was published (Oxford, 1950) by J. L. Austin, with a second edition in 1960.
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  • 05 Dec 2022
Topic Review
First Generation of Intellectual Movements in Iran
First Generation of Intellectual movements in Iran (Persian: نسل اول جنبش های روشنفکری در ایران‎, romanized: Nasl-e Aval-e Jonbesh Hay-e Roshan Fekri dar Iran) or Iranian Enlightenment (Persian: روشنگری ایرانی‎, romanized: Roshangari-e Irani) was a period in the mid-19th- to early-20th- century in Iran, which was accompanied by new ideas in the traditional Iranian society. During the rule of the Qajar dynasty, and especially after the defeat of Iran, in the war with the Russian Empire, due to cultural exchanges, new ideas were formed among the educated class of Iran. This military defeat also encouraged the Qajar commanders to overcome the backwardness. The establishment of Dar ul-Fonun, the first modern university in Iran and the arrival of foreign professors, caused the thoughts of European thinkers to enter Iran, followed by the first signs of enlightenment and intellectual movements in Iran. During this period, intellectual groups were formed in Secret societies and secret associations. Among these Secret societies, we can mention Mirza Malkam Khan's "Faramosh Khaneh" (based on Masonic lodges), Anjoman-e Bagh-e Meykadeh, Society of Humanity and Mokhadarat Vatan Association. These groups spread their ideas by distributing leaflets and newspapers. These secret societies stressed the need to reform the land and administrative system and reduce the role of the clergy in society, as well as to limit the rulers within the framework of the law. Iranian thinkers based their work on confronting religious traditions, they were confronted with Shia Islam, which on the one hand was mixed with superstitions, and on the other hand, the strictness and intellectual prejudice of some religious people caused intellectual-scientific decline. Among the thinkers of this period were Mirza Malkam Khan, Mirza Abdul'Rahim Talibov, Mirza Fatali Akhundov, Iraj Mirza, Mirzadeh Eshghi, Aref Qazvini, Mirza Hassan Roshdieh, Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani, Hassan Taqizadeh, Amir Kabir and Haydar Khan Amo-oghli. Most of these intellectuals expressed their thoughts through poetry and fiction, simple stories and parables that were easier for people to understand helped to spread Enlightenment throughout Iran. The first generation of intellectuals in Iran went beyond the borders of this country and influenced neighboring countries such as Afghanistan and the Arab world such as Egypt. People like Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī collaborated with most of the great thinkers of this period from Iran.
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  • 05 Dec 2022
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