Topic Review
Black Soldier Fly
The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, is a large Stratiomyidae fly (13-20 mm size) found worldwide, but it is believed to have originated in the Americas. It is frequently found in the tropics and temperate regions throughout the world. Although adapted primarily to these regions, it can tolerate wide extremes of temperature except when ovipositing. They are generally considered a beneficial insect and non-pest. The adult fly does not have mouthparts, stingers, or digestive organs; thus, they do not bite or sting and do not feed during its short lifespan. They feed only as larvae and are, therefore, not associated with disease transmission. BSF larvae (BSFL) are voracious eaters of a wide range of organic wastes, decomposing and returning nutrients to the soil. Additionally, BSFL is an alternative  protein source for aquaculture, pet food, livestock feed, and human nutrition.
  • 4362
  • 28 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Flood Prediction Using ML Models
Floods are among the most destructive natural disasters, which are highly complex to model. The research on the advancement of flood prediction models contributed to risk reduction, policy suggestion, minimization of the loss of human life, and reduction of the property damage associated with floods. To mimic the complex mathematical expressions of physical processes of floods, during the past two decades, machine learning (ML) methods contributed highly in the advancement of prediction systems providing better performance and cost-effective solutions. Due to the vast benefits and potential of ML, its popularity dramatically increased among hydrologists.Researchers through introducing novel ML methods and hybridizing of the existing ones aim at discovering more accurate and efficient prediction models. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the state of the art of ML models in flood prediction and to give insight into the most suitable models. In this paper, the literature where ML models were benchmarked through a qualitative analysis of robustness, accuracy, effectiveness, and speed are particularly investigated to provide an extensive overview on the various ML algorithms used in the field. The performance comparison of ML models presents an in-depth understanding of the different techniques within the framework of a comprehensive evaluation and discussion. As a result, this paper introduces the most promising prediction methods for both long-term and short-term floods. Furthermore, the major trends in improving the quality of the flood prediction models are investigated. Among them, hybridization, data decomposition, algorithm ensemble, and model optimization are reported as the most effective strategies for the improvement of ML methods. This survey can be used as a guideline for hydrologists as well as climate scientists in choosing the proper ML method according to the prediction task.
  • 4033
  • 21 Jan 2021
Topic Review
The term macroplastics describes plastic items with a diameter ≥ 5 mm. With this size definition macroplastics can be directly distinguished from microplastics (diameter < 5 mm). Plastic items ≥ 5 mm are commonly considered to be macroplastics once they are released into the environment. Other terminologies used synonymous to macroplastic are “macro litter", “anthropogenic litter”, “plastic litter”, “marine litter”, “marine plastic” and “plastic debris”. 
  • 2886
  • 09 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Environmental Risk Factors
Environmental health is a growing area of knowledge, continually increasing and updating the body of evidence linking the environment to human health.
  • 2828
  • 28 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Water Literacy
Water literacy may be considered generally as the culmination of water-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors.  It holds growing importance for sustainable water resource use and management.  While use and definitions of the concept of water literacy vary broadly in the literature, the synthesis of these identifies common elements and themes in a holistic framework.
  • 2817
  • 03 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Acid Rain
Acid rain has an acidity that is higher than that of normal rainwater. Normal rainwater is not neutral (which would be pH 7) but slightly acidic (it has a pH < 5.5), because some of the carbon dioxide CO2 dissolved in the water is present as carbonic acid H2CO3. In acid rain, chemicals from pollution and natural causes such as volcanic eruptions and emissions from vegetation increase the acidity of the water to as low as pH 4.4 to 4 (as measured in the 1990s in various places). Such acidic rainwater is dangerous for people, vegetation, water bodies including the oceans and its inhabitants, buildings and soil. Since the pH scale is logarithmic, a change from 5.5 to 4.5 means a tenfold increase in acidity. The three main pollutants that cause acid rain are the nitric oxides NO and NO2 (summarized as NOx) and sulfur dioxide SO2. These substances react with water to nitric acid HNO3 and sulfuric acid H2SO4. In the 1980s, in nearly all of Northern Europe and in the Northern United States, suddenly and unexpectedly, whole forests began to die (this effect got to be known as forest dieback). German forests especially experienced severe damage: from 8% in 1982 it increased to 50% in 1984, and stayed as such till 1987. The damage occurred amongst various tree species. Researchers established connections of this damage to acid rain. The mandatory installment of sulfur filters in coal power plants and of catalytic converters in cars in various industrialized countries reduced air pollution with the chemicals related to the formation of acid rain, and, although the forests are still not in perfect shape (about 20% are heavily impaired) a complete death was prevented.
  • 1915
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Water Quality Index
A critical water quality index (WQI) method has been used to determine the overall water quality status of surface water and groundwater systems globally since the 1960s. WQI follows four steps: parameter selection, sub-indices, establishing weights, and final index aggregation.
  • 1787
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Land Suitability Assessment
Land suitability assessment is a method of land evaluation, which identifies the major limiting factors for planting a particular crop. Land suitability assessment includes qualitative and quantitative evaluation. In the qualitative land suitability evaluations, information about climate, hydrology, topography, vegetation, and soil properties is considered and in quantitative assessment, the results are more detailed and yield is estimated. At present study we prepared land suitability assessment map for rain-fed wheat and barley crops based on FAO "land suitability assessment framework" using parametric method and machine learning algorithms in Kurdistan Province, located in west of Iran. This is a unique study that compared two machine learning-based and traditional-based approaches for mapping current and potential future land suitability classes. Moreover, potential yield of rain-fed wheat and barley crop were computed by FAO model.
  • 1717
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
       The Driving force – Pressure – Status – Impact - Response (DPSIR) framework has been widely used in literature to analyse environmental problems. The DPSIR facilitates the investigation of all the possible cause-effect relationships and to plan appropriate technological responses.  This contribution shows an application of the DPSIR to the remediation of contaminated sites, exploiting the case study of the Mar Piccolo di Taranto (Southern Italy). Methodologically, several references were considered, whose information was classified according to the logical scheme of the DPSIR. Among the results it is interesting to observe how, due to its natural hydrogeological network conformation, the Mar Piccolo represents the final receptor of pollutants from industrial, anthropic and agricultural activities. The mobility of contaminants from sediments to the water column and the subsequent bioaccumulation into marine organisms pose a serious threat of unacceptable magnitude to human safety. Responses may concern restriction of area use, control of pollution fonts as well as the implementation of suitable contaminated marine sediment remediation measures. It is noted that the preliminary organization of the existing data can lead to the development of a DPSIR-based Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS). 
  • 1556
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Soil Bioremediation
Petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and agricultural pesticides have mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects and cause drastic changes in soil physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, thereby representing a serious danger to health and environment. Therefore, soil pollution urgently requires the application of a series of physicochemical and biological techniques and treatments to minimize the extent of damage. Among them, bioremediation has been shown to be an alternative that can offer an economically viable way to restore polluted areas.
  • 1428
  • 27 Oct 2020
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