Energy Renewal
  • thermotrophic function
  • energy renewal
  • asymmetric electron-gated function
Video Introduction

This video is adapted from 10.3390/e23060665

It is quite clear that there are two thermodynamically distinct types (A and B) of energetic processes naturally occurring on Earth. Type A, such as glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, apparently follows the second law well; Type B, as exemplified by the thermotrophic function with transmembrane electrostatically localized protons presented here, does not necessarily have to be constrained by the second law, owing to its special asymmetric function. 

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Lee, J.W. Energy Renewal. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 20 April 2024).
Lee JW. Energy Renewal. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 20, 2024.
Lee, James Weifu. "Energy Renewal" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 20, 2024).
Lee, J.W. (2022, September 09). Energy Renewal. In Encyclopedia.
Lee, James Weifu. "Energy Renewal." Encyclopedia. Web. 09 September, 2022.