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Topic review
Updated time: 22 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Giovanni Scardino
Definition: Over the last few years, several authors have presented contrasting models to describe the response of boulders to extreme waves, but the absence of direct observation of movements has hindered the evaluation of these models. The recent development of online video-sharing platforms in coastal settings has provided the opportunity to monitor the evolution of rocky coastlines during storm events. In September 2018, a surveillance camera of the Marine Protected Area of Plemmirio recorded the movement of several boulders along the coast of Maddalena Peninsula (Siracusa, Southeastern Sicily) during the landfall of the Mediterranean tropical-like cyclone (Medicane) Zorbas. Unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) photogrammetric and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) surveys were performed to reconstruct immersive virtual scenarios to geometrically analyze the boulder displacements recorded in the video. Analyses highlighted that the displacements occurred when the boulders were submerged as a result of the impact of multiple small waves rather than due to a single large wave. Comparison between flow velocities obtained by videos and calculated through relationships showed a strong overestimation of the models, suggesting that values of flow density and lift coefficient used in literature are underestimated.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Gizem Gulfidan
Definition: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths related to late diagnosis, poor survival rates, and high incidence of metastasis.
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Topic review
Updated time: 19 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Zygmunt Kruczek
Definition: Entry includes definition of overtourism phenomenon around the world with following literature references both historical and current research.
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Topic review
Updated time: 09 Jun 2021
Submitted by: Yves SY Hsieh
Definition: (1,3;1,4)-β-D-Glucans, also named as mixed-linkage glucans, are unbranched non-cellulosic polysaccharides containing both (1,3)- and (1,4)-β-linkages. The linkage ratio varies depending upon species origin and has a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Mauro Maccarrone
Definition: Gynaecological cancers can be primary neoplasms, originating either from the reproductive tract or the products of conception, or secondary neoplasms, representative of metastatic disease. For some of these cancers, the exact causes are unknown; however, it is recognised that the precise aetiopathogeneses for most are multifactorial and include exogenous (such as diet) and endogenous factors (such as genetic predisposition), which mutually interact in a complex manner. One factor that has been recognised to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of gynaecological cancers is the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS consists of endocannabinoids (bioactive lipids), their receptors, and metabolic enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.
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Topic review
Updated time: 17 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Agostinho Lemos
Definition: The suitability of the 18F radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET) demanded novel approaches for 18F-fluorination and 18F-fluoroalkylation. The difluoromethyl (CF2H) group has gained increasing attention in medicinal chemistry due to its lipophilic hydrogen-bond donor properties. In non-radioactive chemistry, difluoromethyl heteroaryl-sulfones has been extensively used in difluoromethylation of substrates bearing C=C, C≡C, and C≡N bonds by visible light photoredox catalysis. Herein, we highlight our recent work on the synthesis of [18F]difluoromethyl heteroaryl-sulfones with improved molar activities and their application in photoinduced C-H 18F-difluoromethylation of N-containing heteroarenes via a radical-mediated pathway.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Kanwal Mahmood
Definition: One-carbon (1-C) metabolism is essential for numerous cancer cell functions, including protein and nucleic acid synthesis and maintaining cellular redox balance, and inhibition of the 1-C pathway has yielded several highly active drugs, such as methotrexate and 5-FU.
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Topic review
Updated time: 18 May 2021
Submitted by: Piotr Swiatek
Definition: Compounds containing the 1,2,4-triazole ring in their structure are characterised by multidirectional biological activity.
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Topic review
Updated time: 01 May 2021
Submitted by: Peter Tang
Definition: 10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.
Entry Collection : MedlinePlus
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Topic review
Updated time: 21 Apr 2021
Submitted by: Xiaohong Yan
Definition: Long introm-spliced hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) constructs which contained inverted repeats of the phytoene desaturase (PDS) separated by an intron, had been shown to very effective in triggering PDS silencing in Brassica napus. Using the PDS gene as a target control, it was shown that the RCA-mediated long ihpRNA construct was signicantly effective in triggering gene silence in B. napus.
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