Topic Review
Cochlear Implantation
Cochlear implants (CIs) are prostheses that electrically stimulate the cochlear nerve to restore not only sound perception, but speech understanding in people with profound sensorineural hearing loss. CIs use a battery-powered sound processor worn at ear level to transmit electrical signals to an electrode array that has been surgically implanted in the inner ear. The first generation of implants was approved by the FDA in 1984. These devices used a single electrode that allowed recipients to perceive the presence or absence of sound, while variably restoring some speech understanding. The FDA approved the first multi-channel implants for adults and children in 1987 and 1990, respectively. Patients who undergo implantation today do so under a growing number of indications and use devices with a tonotopic array of as many as 24 electrodes. These modern CIs promote language acquisition, literacy, and academic performance in pre-lingually deaf children, while restoring meaningful speech recognition and generating better quality-of-life outcomes for adults who are unable to use traditional amplification.
  • 4
  • 19 May 2022
Topic Review
Gastrointestinal Microbiota for Growth and Performance in Chickens
The gut barrier is comprised of intestinal microbiota and their metabolites, mucins secreted by goblet cells, host-derived antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, and cathelicidins, IgA, intestinal epithelium, microfold cells (M cells), Paneth cells, tuft cells and lymphoid tissues in the sub-epithelium and lamina propria. The gut barrier serves to contain the gut microbiota within the lumen while permitting the absorption of nutrients. Intestinal health, tolerance to food and microbial antigens, and homeostasis are achieved through complex interactions between the multiple components in the gut.
  • 5
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Indole and Indole-Related Compounds by the Intestinal Microbiota
The intestinal microbiota metabolic activity towards the available substrates generates myriad bacterial metabolites that may accumulate in the luminal fluid. Indole and indole-related compounds are, first, involved in intestinal microbial community communication, regulating important aspects of bacterial physiology. These molecules are also known to be active on the intestinal mucosa, exerting overall beneficial effects in different experimental situations, notably in inflammatory situations. After absorption, indole is partly metabolized in the liver into the co-metabolite indoxyl sulfate.
  • 4
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
In Situ Polymerization for Composites
Due to the extremely low viscosity of the cyclic lactams and the superior mechanical properties of the polymers obtained from them, these materials have great potential for application in different liquid composite molding (LCM) techniques. Unsurprisingly, extensive academic research has been conducted over the past years to investigate possible industrial applications of anionically polymerized thermoplastic composites (TPCs) reinforced with glass, carbon, aramid, or natural fibers [18]. It is important to remember that enormous progress has been made in the development of machinery and materials. There are different types of reactive processes for obtaining Nylon-6 composites; some of the main technologies are presented.
  • 3
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Astrocytes in Depression
Astrocytes play a key role in the functioning of neurons in norm and pathology, being a target for stress and glucocorticoids, are a promising target for the treatment of stress-dependent depression and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Depression, as a mental disorder, is characterized by two core symptoms, depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as cognitive impairments, sleep disturbance, psychomotor retardation or agitation, feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt.
  • 2
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Mitochondria-Targeted, Nanoparticle-Based Drug-Delivery Systems
Mitochondria play a key role in the production of metabolic energy in eukaryotic cells [1]. However, apart from energy production, mitochondria also perform several other functions, namely, calcium signaling, cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. With growing interest in mitochondria, significant efforts are being made in mitochondria-targeting pharmaceutical interventions, resulting in ‘mitochondrial medicine’ as an emerging area of healthcare research. Mitochondria-targeting nanoparticles (NPs) are now a promising field of drug-delivery systems.
  • 2
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Polyphenols in Ruminant Nutrition
The feeding of domestic animals with diets in which polyphenols are present is increasingly attracting the attention of nutritionists and scientists.
  • 2
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Building Design for Preventing COVID-19 Pandemic
Sustainable design methods aim to obtain architectural solutions that assure the coexistence and welfare of human beings, inorganic structures, and living things that constitute ecosystems. The novel coronavirus emergence, inadequate vaccines against the present severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-(SARS-CoV-2), and increases in microbial resistance have made it essential to review the preventative approaches used during pre-antibiotic periods. Apart from low carbon emissions and energy, sustainable architecture for facilities, building designs, and digital modeling should incorporate design approaches to confront the impacts of communicable infections. This review aims to determine how architectural design can protect people and employees from harm; it models viewpoints to highlight the architects’ roles in combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and designing guidelines as a biomedical system for policymakers. The goals include exploring the hospital architecture evolution and the connection between architectural space and communicable infections and recommending design and digital modeling strategies to improve infection prevention and controls. Based on a wide-ranging literature review, it was found that design methods have often played important roles in the prevention and control of infectious diseases and could be a solution for combating the wide spread of the novel coronavirus or coronavirus variants or delta. 
  • 2
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Inspiratory Muscle Training in Patients with Pulmonary Disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous disease, with pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, which leads to the need to personalize the assessment and treatment of these patients. The latest updates of national and international guidelines for the management of COPD reveal the importance of respiratory rehabilitation (RR) and its role in improving symptoms, quality of life, and psychosocial sphere of patients. Within RR, the inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has received special interest, showing benefits in maximum inspiratory pressure, perception of well-being, and health status in patients with chronic heart disease, respiratory diseases, and dyspnea during exercise. 
  • 3
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Obesity and Dementia
Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem, affecting many people due to excessive saturated fat consumption, lack of exercise, or a sedentary lifestyle. Leptin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue that increases in obesity and has central actions not only at the hypothalamic level but also in other regions and nuclei of the central nervous system (CNS) such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
  • 3
  • 18 May 2022
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