Topic Review
Xylose Metabolism in Bacteria
Some wild-type and genetically modified bacteria can metabolize xylose through three different main pathways of metabolism: xylose isomerase pathway, oxidoreductase pathway, and non-phosphorylative pathway (including Weimberg and Dahms pathways). Two of the commercially interesting intermediates of these pathways are xylitol and xylonic acid, which can accumulate in the medium either through manipulation of the culture conditions or through genetic modification of the bacteria. 
  • 672
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Workplace Respirator Testing
Respirators, also known as respiratory protective equipment (RPE) or respiratory protective devices (RPD), are used in some workplaces to protect workers from air contaminants. Initially, respirator effectiveness was tested in laboratories, but in the late 1960s it was found that these tests gave misleading results regarding the level of protection provided. In the 1970s, workplace-based respirator testing became routine in industrialized countries, leading to a dramatic reduction in the claimed efficacy of many respirator types and new guidelines on how to select the appropriate respirator for a given environment.
  • 539
  • 12 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Working Principle of Hydraulic Control System
Hydraulic control systems are a feedback control system that uses hydraulic components as control and execution components, and hydraulic oil as the working medium for energy transmission. The movement of hydraulic actuators refers to the system output (including displacement, velocity, acceleration, and force), which is transmitted to the controller through feedback components. The input signal of the control component is adjusted according to the error size, so that the system output can automatically, quickly, and accurately track the system input instructions. Hydraulic control systems are classified into pump-controlled hydraulic control systems and valve-controlled hydraulic control systems based on their various control modes and valve components.
  • 588
  • 18 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Wavelet Scattering Transform
A knowledge-based feature extraction technique has been developed by Bruna and Malat named wavelet scattering transform (WST), which utilizes complex wavelets to balance the discrimination ability and stability of the time-frequency domain signal.
  • 2.0K
  • 09 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Waste-to-Energy Technologies for Slum/Informal Settlements in Nigeria
Slum/informal settlements are an integral part of a city, with a population projected to reach 3 billion by 2030. It is also expected that the rate of waste generation will more than triple by 2050 in the cities of low-income countries of sub-Saharan Africa. At this rate, the risk to the environment and health of inhabitants are enormous, because the current waste management practices are not guided by legislation on proper use and disposal.
  • 626
  • 21 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Waste Natural Polymers
 Waste natural polymers have received much attention as renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and low-cost filler in polymer composites. In order to exploit the high potential for residual natural loading in latex composites, different types of surface modification techniques have been applied. This review discusses the preparation and characterization of the modified waste natural fillers for latex-based composites. The potency of the waste natural filler for the latex-based composites was explored with a focus on the mechanical, thermal, biodegradability and filler–latex interaction.
  • 449
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Waste Heat Recovery Technologies Revisited with New Solutions
Waste heat recovery (WHR) has been a challenge for industries, as it can lead to energy savings, higher energy efficiency, and sustainability. WHR technologies are usually classified based on the output provided, namely heat recovery (HR) or heat-to-power (H2P) conversion. 
  • 814
  • 18 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Vehicle Routing Problem and Its Variants
The VRP solution revolves around finding a route plan, that is, a set of routes associated with a fleet of vehicles, which implies low costs associated with time, fuel, total distance traveled, and labor charges. 
  • 750
  • 28 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Vehicle Routing Problem
With the expansion of online shopping, urban logistics must handle the increasing customer demand, making the last-mile delivery process more challenging. Furthermore, this expansion significantly contributes to companies’ distribution costs. To overcome some of the last-mile delivery costs, parcel lockers-as a delivery option-can be an alternative solution. Parcel lockers extend delivery options beyond home delivery, offering cost-saving benefits. However, incorporating multiple delivery options introduces additional complexity to the delivery management system.
  • 138
  • 18 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Vegetable Oils as Lubricants
Vegetable oils have been used as metalworking fluids (MWFs) for many years, particularly in small-scale metalworking operations and in industries where environmental regulations are strict. Before the development of modern MWFs, vegetable oils were one of the most common lubricants used for metalworking tools. The use of vegetable oils can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, and Rome, where olive oil was commonly used to lubricate metal tools and weapons. 
  • 2.1K
  • 19 Apr 2023
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