Topic Review
EEG Power Spectrum
The electrical activity of the brain reflected in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is determined by neurons, glia cells, and the blood-brain barrier, which is mainly caused by nerve cells.
  • 5454
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Microgrid Applications
Microgrids need control and management at different levels to allow the inclusion of renewable energy sources. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review is presented to analyse the latest trends in research and development referring to the applications of predictive control in microgrids. As a result of this review, it was found that the application of predictive control techniques on microgrids is performed for the three control levels and with adaptations of the models in order to include uncertainties to improve their performance and dynamics response. In addition, to ensure system stability, but also, at higher control levels, coordinated operation among the microgrid’s components and synchronised and optimised operation with utility grids and electric power markets. Predictive control appears as a very promising control scheme with several advantages for microgrid applications of different control levels.
  • 1785
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Control Techniques in Photovoltaic Systems
Complex control structures are required for the operation of photovoltaic electrical energy systems. In this paper, a general review of the controllers used for photovoltaic systems is presented. This entry is based on the most recent papers presented in the literature. The control architectures considered are complex hybrid systems that combine classical and modern techniques, such as artificial intelligence and statistical models. The main contribution of this paper is the synthesis of a generalized control structure and the identification of the latest trends. The main findings are summarized in the development of increasingly robust controllers for operation with improved efficiency, power quality, stability, safety, and economics.
  • 1726
  • 19 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Autonomous Navigation
Autonomous navigation is a very important area in the huge domain of mobile autonomous vehicles.  Sensor integration is a key concept that is critical to the successful implementation of navigation.  As part of this publication, we review the integration of Laser sensors like LiDAR with vision sensors like cameras.  The past decade, has witnessed a surge in the application of sensor integration as part of smart-autonomous mobility systems. Such systems can be used in various areas of life like safe mobility for the disabled, disinfecting hospitals post Corona virus treatments, driver-less vehicles, sanitizing public areas, smart systems to detect deformation of road surfaces, to name a handful.  These smart systems are dependent on accurate sensor information in order to function optimally. This information may be from a single sensor or a suite of sensors with the same or different modalities. We review various types of sensors, their data, and the need for integration of the data with each other to output the best data for the task at hand, which in this case is autonomous navigation. In order to obtain such accurate data, we need to have optimal technology to read the sensor data, process the data, eliminate or at least reduce the noise and then use the data for the required tasks. We present a survey of the current data processing techniques that implement integration of multimodal data from different types of sensors like LiDAR that use light scan technology, various types of Red Green Blue (RGB) cameras that use optical technology and review the efficiency of using fused data from multiple sensors rather than a single sensor in autonomous navigation tasks like mapping, obstacle detection, and avoidance or localization. This survey will provide sensor information to researchers who intend to accomplish the task of motion control of a robot and detail the use of LiDAR and cameras to accomplish robot navigation
  • 1515
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Digital twins in pharmaceutical manufacturing
The development and application of emerging technologies of Industry 4.0 enable the realization of digital twins (DT), which facilitates the transformation of the manufacturing sector to a more agile and intelligent one. DTs are virtual constructs of physical systems that mirror the behavior and dynamics of such physical systems. A fully developed DT consists of physical components, virtual components, and information communications between the two. Integrated DTs are being applied in various processes and product industries. Although the pharmaceutical industry has evolved recently to adopt Quality-by-Design (QbD) initiatives and is undergoing a paradigm shift of digitalization to embrace Industry 4.0, there has not been a full DT application in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Therefore, there is a critical need to examine the progress of the pharmaceutical industry towards implementing DT solutions. The aim of this entry is to give an overview of the current status of DT development and its application in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. State-of-the-art Process Analytical Technology (PAT) developments, process modeling approaches, and data integration studies are reviewed. Challenges and opportunities for future research in this field are also discussed.
  • 1439
  • 09 Mar 2022
Topic Review
HVAC Systems of Smart Building
Early fault detection and diagnosis in heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems may reduce the damage of equipment, improving the reliability and safety of smart buildings, generating social and economic benefits. Data models for fault detection and diagnosis are increasingly used for extracting knowledge in the supervisory tasks. This article proposes an autonomic cycle of data analysis tasks (ACODAT) for the supervision of the building’s HVAC systems. Data analysis tasks incorporate data mining models for extracting knowledge from the system monitoring, analyzing abnormal situations and automatically identifying and taking corrective actions. This article shows a case study of a real building’s HVAC system, for the supervision with our ACODAT, where the HVAC subsystems have been installed over the years, providing a good example of a heterogeneous facility. The proposed supervisory functionality of the HVAC system is capable of detecting deviations, such as faults or gradual increment of energy consumption in similar working conditions. The case study shows this capability of the supervisory autonomic cycle, usually a key objective for smart buildings.
  • 1340
  • 01 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Aerial Microbial Contamination
Air is recognized as an important source of microbial contamination in food production facilities and has the potential to contaminate the food product causing food safety and spoilage issues for the food industry. Potential for aerial microbial contamination of food can be a particular issue during storage in cold rooms when the food is not packaged and is exposed to contaminated air over a prolonged period. Thus, there are potential benefits for the food industry for an aerial decontamination in cold storage facilities. It is considered that current systems may not be completely effective and environmentally friendly, therefore, it is of great significance to consider the development of nonresidual and verified decontamination technologies for the food industry and, in particular, for the cold storage rooms.
  • 1316
  • 17 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Fault-Tolerant Control
Fault-tolerant controllers (FTCs) can be defined as controllers that are able to tolerate faults and keep the control performance in the ideal range in the presence of faults. FTC approaches can be categorized into two main categories: Passive FTCs and Active FTC. Passive FTCs are not dependent on fault detection and isolation (FDI) modules and can keep the desired controller performance without considering the type and size of fault. Active FTCs are equipped with the FDI module and behave differently to different kinds of fault.
  • 1042
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Driving Mechanisms/Motion of Screw Drive
In recent years, interest in in-pipe robot research has been steadily increasing. This phenomenon reflects the necessity and urgency of pipe inspection and rehabilitation as several pipe networks have become outdated around the globe. In-pipe robots can be divided into several groups in accordance with their locomotion principles, each with its own advantages and best suited application scope. Research on the screw drive in-pipe robot (SDIR) has had a rising trend due to the robot’s simple driving mechanism design and numerous advantages. 
  • 793
  • 09 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Architecture of Dima System
One of the most recent manifestations of avionics system is Distributed Integrated Modular Avionics (DIMA).  The study of DIMA architecture is essential when considering two levels of mappings, that is (1) software modules to hardware components, and (2) hardware components to installation locations. This entry describes the hierarchical design of DIMA, including system layer, hardware layer and installation layer that are linked with a group of constraints and quality measures.
  • 776
  • 26 Apr 2020
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