Topic Review
β-Ti Alloys for Orthopedic and Dental Applications
Ti and Ti alloys have charming comprehensive properties (high specific strength, strong corrosion resistance, and excellent biocompatibility) that make them the ideal choice in orthopedic and dental applications, especially in the particular fabrication of orthopedic and dental implants. However, these alloys present some shortcomings, specifically elastic modulus, wear, corrosion, and biological performance. Beta-titanium (β-Ti) alloys have been studied as low elastic modulus and low toxic or non-toxic elements.
  • 343
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
β-Adrenergic Agonist Residue Point-of-Care Testing
The illegal use of β-adrenergic agonists during livestock growth poses a threat to public health; the long-term intake of this medication can cause serious physiological side effects and even death. Therefore, rapid detection methods for β-adrenergic agonist residues on-site are required. Traditional detection methods such as liquid chromatography have limitations in terms of expensive instruments and complex operations. In contrast, paper methods are low cost, ubiquitous, and portable, which has led to them becoming the preferred detection method in recent years. Various paper-based fluidic devices have been developed to detect β-adrenergic agonist residues, including lateral flow immunoassays (LFAs) and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs).
  • 139
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
ZrO2—CeO2 Ceramics Doped with Yttrium
The synthesis of ZrO2—CeO2 ceramics was carried out using solid-phase mechanochemical synthesis followed by thermal sintering of the obtained mixtures. ZrO2 and CeO2 powders in equal mole fractions (0.5:0.5) were chosen as initial components for synthesis. 
  • 160
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
ZIS-5 (Truck)
The ZIS-5 (Russian: ЗиС-5) was a 4x2 Soviet truck produced by Moscow ZIS factory from 1932 to 1948 (first one made at the end of 1930).
  • 87
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Zipline (Drone Delivery)
Zipline is an American medical product delivery company that is headquartered in South San Francisco, California, and which designs, manufactures, and operates delivery drones. The company operates distribution centers in Rwanda, Ghana, and the US, with signed agreements to begin service in Japan , Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. As of December 2021, its drones have made over 225,000 commercial deliveries. The company's drones deliver whole blood, platelets, frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate along with medical products including vaccines, infusions and routine medical commodities. As of September 2021, more than 75% of blood deliveries in Rwanda outside of Kigali use Zipline drones. In April 2019 in Ghana, the company began using drones to deliver vaccines, blood, and medicines. During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) granted a Part 107 waiver to Zipline's partner organization Novant Health for the delivery of medical supplies and personal protective equipment (PPE) to medical facilities in North Carolina. Along with nine other drone delivery companies, the FAA selected Zipline to participate in a type certification program for delivery drones.
  • 214
  • 06 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Zip (File Format)
ZIP files generally use the file extensions .zip or .ZIP and the MIME media type application/zip. ZIP is used as a base file format by many programs, usually under a different name. When navigating a file system via a user interface, graphical icons representing ZIP files often appear as a document or other object prominently featuring a zipper.
  • 78
  • 14 Oct 2022
Topic Review
ZIF-8 for Heavy-Metal Removal
Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), a type of MOF used for heavy-metal removal in aqueous solutions, as well as its application, adsorption mechanisms, and the factors that influence its adsorption mechanism.
  • 394
  • 28 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Zero-Waste Manufacturing
At first glance, zero waste (ZW) means complete and total elimination or absence of waste. However, much more than that, ZW entails waste prevention and where all materials are reused. It is a philosophy that forbids sending any unused material to landfills, dumpsites, or incinerators.
  • 279
  • 16 May 2022
Topic Review
Zero Energy Buildings Concept-Definition Review for Latin America
In recent decades, European countries have developed concepts, definitions, and construction technologies for Zero Energy Building (ZEB) that are effective and correspond to their specific climates. Latin American countries are still trying to find adequate solutions which respond to the local climatic, cultural, social, technical, and economic context. As such, this paper aims to establish the basis of the minimum energy efficiency and the renewable threshold for the definition of ZEB in order to better understand the application in Panama, based on assessing the energy regulations implemented in Panama. To achieve this aim, a review concentrated on the concept-definition and implementation adopted by Latin American countries is presented first before the paper converges into defining a framework for application in Panama. Finally, a case-study-based theoretical framework proposing a ZEB definition for Panama is discussed. The results of this study showed a net primary energy balance, of which the range falls into a plus energy building definition, indicating that all of the cases studied could supply their electricity needs using Photovoltaic generation. All dwellings studied have the potential to become a plus energy building, depending on the available roof surface area. Finally, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis is presented in order to assess and support the introduction of such a ZEB definition and framework. 
  • 176
  • 18 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Zeppelin LZ 85
The LZ 85 was a World War I R-Class zeppelin of the German Navy with a total length of 198 metres (649 ft 7 in), allocated the tactical numbering L 45. LZ 85 carried out a total of 27 flights including 3 raids on England and 12 reconnaissance missions. LZ 85(LZ55) was also the numbering of the German zeppelin downed in Thessaloniki on 5th May 1916 by the British Navy HMS Agamemnon.
  • 9
  • 22 Nov 2022
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